Industrial ecology and cleaner production

Tim Jackson

Clean (or cleaner) production is an approach to environmental management which aims to encourage new processes, products and services which are cleaner and more resource-efficient. It emphasizes a preventive approach to environmental management taking into account impacts over the whole life cycle of products and services.

There are clear conceptual resonances between industrial ecology and cleaner production. Both are motivated by concerns about the increasing environmental impacts of industrial economic systems. They emerged at more or less the same time (the late 1980s to mid-1990s) in the evolution of environmental management. Both have spawned their own journals and their own literature. A brief survey of this literature reveals strong intellectual overlaps between the two models. For example, the Journal of Cleaner Production (published by Elsevier Science) advertises its scope as including the following concepts:

• pollution prevention,

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