sented 68 per cent of the mineral resource share of imported TMR in 1997. Hidden flows due to the additional import of 2337 to 2450 tons of other precious stones have not been attributed owing to lack of data, although it is known that in some cases precious stone mining may reach the hidden flow ratio of gold (105 —106).

The import of agricultural products to the EU-15 was associated with a higher amount of erosion than domestic agriculture. This resulted mainly from the import of products such as coffee and cocoa which are cultivated in tropical countries. Erosion is influenced by many parameters, such as rainfall, slope and cultivation practices. Worldwide erosion is a severe threat to soil availability and fertility and food production (Pimentel et al. 1995).

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