Case 1: diphenyl as a pollutant
Figure 11.5 shows the results of 10 different optimal designs for the HDA process by minimizing and maximizing each of the nine objective functions and removing the duplicate designs. These designs represent a first approximation to the complete Pareto surface consisting of many such designs. While this is only an initial exploration of the design space, the results in Figure 11.5 do show that profit does not conflict with the environmental criteria in all cases, and one can find an optimal design that is effective in meeting both economic and environmental objectives. This is due to the non-convex nature of the objective surface for the HDA process. From the figure, it can be seen that designs 1 and 2 are likely to be deemed superior to the others since (a) the profit of design no. 1 is the highest of all 10 designs and its environmental impacts (except for the value of PCOP) are lower than designs 3 to 10, and (b) design no. 2 has the best environmental performance (except PCOP), and its profit is only 7.4 per cent less than that of design no. 1. Further, the results
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