The lowest requirements for minerals were shown for the Netherlands. Resource requirements for metals were on a higher level in the EU-15 (10.1t/cap) than in the USA (9.4t/cap). There was a significantly higher flow in Finland (21.5t/cap), where metal manufacturing still represents a relevant element of industrial production. In comparison, the metal resource requirements of Japan in 1994 were 1.6 times lower than those of the EU-15 in 1995.
At 6t/cap, biomass represented 12 per cent of TMR in the EU-15. This was only 2 per cent lower than the US biomass harvest in 1994. Most of the biomass stems from agriculture. However, Finland provided a twofold exception. First, the input of biomass amounted to 23 per cent of TMR, and second, the biomass was dominated by forestry cuts, which also represent a significant basis for the Finnish export industry. The proportion of regrowing resources in Finland was 1.9 times higher than the EU-15 as a whole.
Erosion of agricultural fields contributed only 10 per cent of the TMR in the EU-15. In the USA the amount of erosion had been reduced by policy programs, yet it was still 2.9 times the EU-15 level. Within the EU member states studied only the Netherlands were clearly above the average. This reflected the high amount of agricultural imports traded and processed in the Netherlands and associated with high levels of erosion in the countries of origin.
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