Figure 23.3 Temporal trends of selected per capita material output flows (Index 1975 = 100) in Germany (West Germany 1975-90, reunited Germany 1991-6)

in Germany. (It has been the center of regional political debate because single villages had to be abandoned in favor of mining excavation.) Most of the associated hidden flows are recorded in official German statistics.

Among the declining trends of material outputs, that of CFCs and halons is especially obvious. As with SO2 emissions, these are examples of declining material outputs due to effective policy regulations. Nevertheless, the constant DPO level indicates that the overall output flows have not been reduced by regulation. Between 1975 and 1996, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels ranged from 84 per cent to 87 per cent of DPO. This represents the most dominant volume of processed outputs of the economy to the environment. In 1996, 89 per cent of DPO was released to the atmosphere, the 'globalized waste bin'.

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