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GDP per capita (1000 ECU in constant prices of 1985)

Source: Wuppertal Institute (see also EEA 2000; Bringezu and Sch├╝tz 2001).

Figure 23.2 Trend of GDP and DMI in member states of the European Union, 1988-95

Direct resource productivity (GDP/DMI) of the EU-15 increased by 28 per cent from 1988 to 1997 (Figure 23.2). Whereas in most EU countries economic growth was associated with increased DMI, reduced dependence on direct material inputs was recorded for Finland, France, Italy, Sweden and the UK. In most cases this was mainly due to reduced construction. The trend of declining DMI associated with higher levels of GDP

corroborated earlier findings of Janicke et al. (1992), who studied the consumption of selected materials in industrialized countries.

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