Info

Notes:

1 Data cover intentional metal ore production unless noted otherwise.

2 USBM 1992 (Minerals in the World Economy).

3 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1996 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

4 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1998 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

5 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, February 2000 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

6 Cadmium extracted from zinc ore.

Notes:

1 Data cover intentional metal ore production unless noted otherwise.

2 USBM 1992 (Minerals in the World Economy).

3 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1996 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

4 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 1998 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

5 US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, February 2000 (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/).

6 Cadmium extracted from zinc ore.

capital goods, intermediate products, consumer goods and wastes. If metals are accumulating in the economy, emissions may be only temporarily decreasing and may well increase in the future, for example through corrosion, inadequately controlled incineration and landfill of municipal and industrial solid waste (cf. Ayres and Rod 1986; Stigliani and Anderberg 1994; Bergbäck and Lohm 1997). Individual countries may also export these metals to foreign countries and thus shift the problem abroad.

The emission reductions mentioned above may be a temporary trend rather than a sustainable solution and the feeling that the main metal problems are solved may be premature. It is thus useful to analyze heavy metal flows and accumulations in the economy and environment in an integrated way. For this, substance flow analysis or material flow analysis are available as methods. In the next section, a short reference to these methods and related models will be made and some useful indicators will be discussed. Then results of a Dutch project including three case studies applying integral analyses methods are discussed. In the final section, conclusions on risk management of heavy metals are drawn.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Going Green For More Cash

Going Green For More Cash

Stop Wasting Resources And Money And Finnally Learn Easy Ideas For Recycling Even If You’ve Tried Everything Before! I Easily Found Easy Solutions For  Recycling Instead Of Buying New And Started Enjoying Savings As Well As Helping The Earth And I'll Show You How YOU Can, Too! Are you sick to death of living with the fact that you feel like you are wasting resources and money?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment