Japanese TMR is about 45 tons per capita, which is much lower than the other three countries studied (around 85 tons per capita). This is mainly because of smaller energy consumption per capita and lower dependency on coal. In terms of DMI per capita, the Japanese figure is only slightly smaller than those of Germany and the USA. DMI per capita for the Netherlands is also on a similar level, if huge transit import flows to other European countries are excluded. Dependency on imported material flows varies largely among countries, from less than
10 per cent for the USA to 70 per cent for the Netherlands. Ecological 'rucksacks' accompanied by imports imply various environmental impacts on trade partners. More specific analysis will be necessary to identify individual problems behind ecological rucksacks. The absolute level of DPO per capita in Japan is about 4 metric tons without oxygen and
11 metric tons with oxygen. These values are relatively small in comparison to the countries studied.
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