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1.1 Typology of ecosystems 5

1.2 The elements of industrial ecology seen as operating at different levels 10

1.3 Industrial ecology conceptualized in terms of its system-oriented and 11 application-oriented elements

5.1 Conceptual diagram of an aluminum kombinat 51

5.2 Lignite-burning power plant modified via PYREG 53

5.3 Systems integrated with ENECHEM with additional plant for xylite 54 processing

5.4 Hypothetical process-product flows for COALPLEX 56

6.1 Evolution in international governance systems 62

8.1 Economy-wide material flows 88

9.1 A substance life cycle for copper in the Netherlands, 1990 95

11.1 A conceptual framework for a process analysis approach to industrial 115 ecology

11.2 The process flowsheet for the production of benzene through the 119 hydrodealkylation of toluene

11.3 ASPEN representation of the HDA process 120

11.4 A generalized multi-objective optimization framework 126

11.5 Approximate Pareto set for the HDA process multi-objective 128 optimization (case 1: diphenyl as a pollutant)

11.6 Approximate Pareto set for the HDA process multi-objective 129 optimization (case 2: diphenyl as a by-product)

11.7 Probabilistic distribution functions for stochastic modeling 131

11.8 The multi-objective optimization under uncertainty framework 133

11.9 Uncertainty quantification in environmental impacts indices for the case 135 study

11.10 Approximation of Pareto set for the uncertainty case 136

11.11 Relative effects of uncertainties on different objectives 137

12.1 Technical framework for life cycle assessment 140

12.2 Two ways of defining system boundaries between physical economy and 141 environment in LCA

12.3 Allocation of environmental burdens in multiple processes 143

13.1 An impact evaluation combining scenarios for technique, environment and 150 human attitudes

13.2 Different types of characterization models 154

13.3 Relations between emissions and impacts may vary owing to location 155 and other circumstances

13.4 The aggregated impact value is linearly dependent on all input data 157

13.5 Conceptual data model of impact evaluation 159

14.1 Material flow accounting 168

14.2 SEEA: flow and stock accounts with environmental assets 169

14.3 Annual TMR per capita for the USA, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan 173 and Poland

14.4 Environmentally adjusted net capital formation in per cent of NDP 175

16.1 The Salter cycle growth engine 188

16.2 The ratio f plotted together with B, total exergy and W, waste exergy - USA, 194 1900-98

16.3 Fuel exergy used for different purposes - USA, 1900-98 195

16.4 Breakdown of total exergy inputs - USA, 1900-98 196

16.5 Index of total electrcity production by electric utilities (1900 = 1) and average 197 energy conversion efficiency over time - USA, 1900-98

16.6 Exergy intensity (E/Y) plotted against f and the Solow residual, A(t) - USA, 198 1900-98

16.7 Cobb-Douglas production function, USA, 1900-98 200

16.8 Technical progress function with best fit A: USA, 1900-98 201

17.1 Materials group indices of intensity of use 208

18.1 Three-year moving averages of prices of zinc relative to the consumer price 211 index in the USA

18.2 The 'intensity of use' hypothesis and the influence of technological change 213

18.3 Developments in aggregated throughput 215

18.4 Developments in the throughput index 216

18.5 Steel intensities in the UK, 1960-95 218

18.6 Energy intensities in the UK, 1960-97 219

18.7 Steel intensities in the Netherlands, 1960-95 220

18.8 Energy intensities in the Netherlands, 1970-96 221

20.1 Trends in production, energy consumption and CO2 discharge in the 237 Japanese manufacturing industry, 1955-94

20.2 Trends in factors and their magnitude contributing to change in CO2 239 emissions in the Japanese manufacturing industry, 1970-94

20.3 Trends in technology knowledge stock of energy R&D and non-energy 241 R&D in the Japanese manufacturing industry, 1965-94

20.4 Factors contributing to change in energy efficiency in the Japanese 243 manufacturing industry, 1970-94

20.5 Factors contributing to change in energy R&D expenditure in the Japanese 245 manufacturing industry, 1974-94

21.1 Global carbon cycle 251

21.2 Global nitrogen cycle 253

21.3 Global sulfur cycle 256

21.4 Global phosphorus cycle 258

22.1 The materials cycle 261

22.2 Processed flows for physical goods in the USA, 1900-96 268

22.3 Processed flows for physical goods in the USA, 1900-96 (log scale) 269

22.4 Physical goods derived from metals and minerals in the USA, 1900-96 270

22.5 Physical goods derived from renewable organic forest and agricultural 271 sources in the USA, 1900-96

22.6 Physical goods derived from non-renewable organic sources in the USA, 272 1900-96

22.7 Plastic and non-renewable organic physical goods in the USA, 1900-96 273

22.8 World use of materials for processed physical goods, 1970-96 276

23.1 Composition of TMR in the European Union, selected member states 293 and other countries

23.2 Trend of GDP and DMI in member states of the European Union, 295 1988-95

23.3 Temporal trends of selected per capita material output flows in Germany 296 (West Germany 1975-90, reunited Germany 1991-96)

24.1 Frameworks of environmentally extended physical input-output tables 305

24.2 Materials balance for Japan, 1990 308 26.1 A physical net balance of foreign trade activities for the UK economy 329

for the period 1937-97

27.1 Industrial ecology operating at three levels 334

27.2 Industrial symbiosis at Kalundborg, Denmark 336 28.1 World mineral production and total 'hidden flows' for the 12 commodities 354

producing the largest total materials flows at the global level

29.1 Stocks and flows in the metal model for iron/steel and MedAlloy 367

29.2 Model relationships within the metal model 368

29.3 Intensity of use hypothesis 369

29.4 IU curve for iron/steel and MedAlloy use in 13 global regions 371

29.5 Model results, 1900-2100: (a) consumption; (b) secondary production 372 fraction; (c) price; (d) ore grade; (e) energy consumption

30.1 Emissions of heavy metals in the Netherlands, 1990, and steady state 386

30.2 Human toxicity risk ratios for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the 387 Netherlands, 1990, and steady state

30.3 Aquatic ecotoxicity risk ratios for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the 388 Netherlands, 1990, and steady state

30.4 Terrestrial ecotoxicity risk ratios for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the 388 Netherlands, 1990, and steady state

31.1 Metal abundance in the Earth's crust and in society 396

32.1 The Sherwood Plot 407

32.2 Flow of industrial hazardous waste in treatment operations 408

32.3 Concentration distribution of copper in industrial hazardous waste streams 409

32.4 Concentration distribution of zinc in industrial hazardous waste streams 410

32.5 Optimal supply network for waste re-use in the Bayport Industrial Complex 414

32.6 Direct chlorination and oxychlorination of ethylene in tandem 415

32.7 Chlorine flows in combined vinyl chloride and isocyanate manufacturing 417

32.8 A summary of chlorine flows in the European chemical industry 419

33.1 Development of cadmium input and soil content, leaching and offtake rates 425 in the conventional arable farming system

33.2 Development of copper input and soil content, leaching and offtake rates 426 in the conventional arable farming system

34.1 The automotive technology system: a schematic diagram 433

34.2 The life cycle of the motor car, and the processes that occur during that cycle 435

34.3 The life cycle of the automotive infrastructure, and the processes that 436 occur during that cycle

34.4 The results of the SLCA assessments for each of four cars from different 439 epochs over the five life stages, and the overall assessments

34.5 Target plots for the environmental assessments of the four cars 440

34.6 A portion of a conceptual transit network for a transmodal system: a web 443 of tram routes serves the urban core

35.1 Information service provider environmental life cycle 448

36.1 Product life cycle 458

37.1 Risk analysis and the extended supply chain 468

40.1 A closed-loop supply chain for cartridge re-use 498

40.2 A closed-loop supply chain for single-use cameras 499

40.3 A closed-loop supply chain for photocopiers 501

40.4 A closed-loop supply chain for cellular telephones 503

41.1 The supply chain with forward and backward flows 511

41.2 Material flow, single recovery 514

41.3 Material flow, multiple recovery cycles 515

41.4 Forward and reverse product flows for HP ink-jet printers 518

43.1 Possible adoption patterns of LCA according to institutionalization 535 theory; positioning of 36 surveyed companies by 1998

43.2 Possible life cycle-based management toolkit and communication flows 540

44.1 US municipal solid waste flows, 1995 546

45.1 The climate assessment model meta-IMAGE 2.1 555

45.2 Global anthropogenic CO2 emissions and CO2 concentrations for the 562 Baseline-A scenario according to the meta-IMAGE model for the carbon balancing experiments

45.3 Global anthropogenic CO2 emissions and CO2 concentration pathway 563 from the reference case according to the meta-IMAGE model

45.4 The global mean surface temperature increase for the Baseline-A scenario 564 for the model uncertainties in the carbon cycle and climate models, and the combined effect of both

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