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8.1 Types of material flow-related analysis 81

8.2 Economy-wide material balance with derived indicators 86

10.1 Components of the input and output sides of a PIOT and scheme of a 103 PIOT with five components

10.2 A physical input-output table for Germany, 1990 106

10.3 Production account of the German PIOT, 1990 108

10.4 Filtered triangularized PIOT 110

11.1 Process simulation tools 118

11.2 Sample results for the HDA flowsheet simulation 121

11.3 The potential environmental impact categories used within the WAR 123 algorithm

11.4 Potential environmental impact indices for the components in the HDA 128 process

11.5 Uncertainty quantification in environmental impacts indices for the 134 components in the HDA process

12.1 Impact categories for life cycle impact assessment 144

14.1 Indicators of non-sustainability 165

17.1 US materials groupings, end uses and periods of peak intensity of use 207

18.1 Annual world growth rates in the consumption of refined metals 212

20.1 Comparison of paths in attaining development in major countries/ 233 regions in the world, 1979-88

20.2 Trends in the ratio of government energy R&D expenditure and GDP in 235 G7 countries, 1975-94

20.3 Trends in Japanese government energy R&D expenditure and 236 MITI's share

20.4 Factors contributing to change in CO2 emissions in the Japanese 238 manufacturing industry, 1970-94

20.5 Trends in change rate of R&D expenditure and technology knowledge 241 stock in the Japanese manufacturing industry, 1970-94

20.6 Factors contributing to change in energy efficiency in the Japanese 243 manufacturing industry, 1970-94

20.7 Factors contributing to change in energy R&D expenditure in the 244 Japanese manufacturing industry, 1974-94

22.1 List of commodities by sources and sub-groups for the USA 264

22.2 Hidden and processed material flows in the USA, 1975-96 266

22.3 Sources of physical goods in the US 269

22.4 List of commodities, by sources and sub-groups, for the world 275

22.5 Global and US use of physical goods, by source category, 1996 276 22A.1 Processed flows for physical goods in the USA, 1900-96 278

22A.2 Physical goods derived from metals and minerals in the USA, 1900-96 280

22A.3 Physical goods derived from renewable organic forest and agricultural 282 sources in the USA, 1900-96

22A.4 Physical goods derived from non-renewable organic sources and plastics 285 in the USA, 1900-96

22A.5 World use of materials for physical goods 1972-96 287

23.1 Domestic material flow balance for Germany, 1996 290

23.2 Ratios of hidden flows to commodities for the EU-15 in 1995 294

23.3 Net addition to stock indicating the physical growth rate of the economy 297

25.1 Final consumption of energy fuels, by sector in Australia, 1992 315

25.2 Transport characteristics in Australia 316

25.3 Waste generation in Australia 317

25.4 Greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from anthropogenic sources, 1991 317

25.5 Natural resources in Australia, 1990 319

26.1 Yearly average materials input to the UK economy over six decades 325

26.2 Relative change of average materials input to the UK economy 326

26.3 Average domestic extraction of materials for five-year periods in the UK, 327 1937-97

26.4 DMI per capita, GDP and population in the UK over six decades 330

26.5 Relative change in DMI per capita, GDP and population in the UK 330 over five decades

26.6 A comparison of the material consumption in several industrial 332 economies

27.1 Chronology of Kalundborg development 337

27.2 Waste and resource savings at Kalundborg 339

28.1 Totals of materials moved by the main types of extractive industry, 358

infrastructure development and waste creation activities in selected countries

28A.1 Global mineral production and associated earth materials movement, 360 1995

28A.2 Estimated total annual production and stockpiles of waste materials 362 in the UK, by sector

28A.3 Summary of controlled waste in England and Wales, production and 363 disposal

28A.4 Sludge production and disposal methods in a selection of countries 363

28A.5 Earth removal during some major tunneling and civil engineering 364 projects in the UK

29.1 Model results in 2100 for three scenarios plus the egalitarian nightmare 377

29A.1 Global consumption data (primary and secondary) for abundant 381 metals and metals of medium abundance

30.1 Global production rates of some metals for the period 1980-92 383

30.2 Transition period for risk ratios for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc 389 in the Netherlands

31.1 Indication of the material-constrained stock for selected technologies 393

31.2 Current and historical extraction compared to the reserves 396

31.3 By-product values in zinc ore 398

32.1 A representative sampling of sources of data on industrial wastes and 406 emissions in the USA

32.2 Percentage of metals in hazardous wastes that can be recovered 410 economically

32.3 Partial listing of non-chlorinated chemical products that utilize chlorine 418 in their manufacturing processes

32.4 Partial list of processes that produce or consume hydrochloric acid 419

32.5 Processes for reducing chlorine use in chemical manufacturing 420

33.1 Net heavy-metal accumulation for some European soils 423

33.2 Static Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn balances for arable farming systems at the 425 Nagele experimental farm

33.3 Sustainability indicators of four arable farming systems 428

36.1 World motor vehicle production 460

36.2 Evaluation of attributes for fuel-engine combinations relative to a 462 conventional car

37.1 Accidents reported in RMP*Info by chemical involved in the 473 accident, 1994-99

37.2 Consequences of accidents during the reporting period 474

38.1 Comparisons of physical planning characteristics 479

38.2 Comparisons of planning contexts and institutional frameworks 481

40.1 Characteristics of closed-loop supply chains for refillable containers 499

40.2 Characteristics of closed-loop supply chains for industrial 502 remanufacturing

40.3 Characteristics of supply chains for consumer electronics re-use 505

40.4 Key distinctions between closed-loop supply chains 506

40.5 Keys to success: industrial remanufacturing closed-loop supply chains 507

40.6 Keys to success: consumer electronics closed-loop supply chains 508 41.1 Factors differentiating repair, remanufacturing and recycling 512 43.1 Possible uses of LCA in companies 531

44.1 Actor by life cycle stage 547

44.2 Economic characteristics of municipal solid waste industry segments 549

45.1 Components of the global carbon dioxide mass balance, 1980-89, in 556 terms of anthropogenically induced perturbations to the natural carbon cycle

45.2 Components of the carbon budget (in GtC/yr), 1980-89, according 561 to the IPCC and model simulations for the carbon balancing experiments

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