Material Outflows

The largest output flow from the economy to nature is the emission of carbon dioxide. Apart from the fact that CO2 is notorious as a greenhouse gas (certainly a matter for concern) we have to recognize another fact: CO2 is the heaviest waste from the industrialized economies.

After CO2, waste disposal to controlled landfill sites is the next major component of direct processed output (DPO). This is of greater environmental significance than the nominal weight implies. Japan has a shortage of landfill sites for waste disposal. Reclaiming coastal areas for this purpose has sometimes caused the decrease of habitats for wildlife. The amount of waste disposal to landfill is much smaller than the amount of waste generated. The difference between the amount generated and the amount sent to landfill is the amount recycled or reduced by incineration and drying. Three-quarters of MSW is incinerated to reduce waste volumes. The amount of landfill wastes was almost constant until 1990, but is now decreasing, thanks to waste minimization and recycling efforts.

Input of food and feed is balanced by return flows of CO2 and water after digestion.

Uj es 8

Resource Inputs

Fossil fuels 400

Metal ores 139

Non-metal ores 20

Biotic resources 76

/Semi & final 60

Exports 70

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