The Water Framework Directive a sea change in thinking

The Water Framework Directive WFD is the most substantial piece of legislation relating to water quality passed by the European Commission to date, and marked a shift from largely chemical to ecological standards. The legislation stipulated that several different biological quality elements had to be assessed, not just invertebrates now fish, phytoplankton, and macrophytes and phyto-benthos had to be considered also, dependent upon the water body type. Furthermore, this legislation represented...

References

Albers, P.H. and Camardese, M.B. 1993 Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates 1. Constructed wetlands. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12, 959 967. Amisah, S. and Cowx, I.G. 2000 Impacts of abandoned mine and industrial discharges on fish abundance and macroinvertebrate diversity of the upper River Don in South Yorkshire, UK. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 15, 237 250. Armitage, P.D., Bowes, M.J. and Vincent, H.M. 2007 Long term changes in macro...

Conclusions

Although in recent years the WFD has precipitated an unprecedented drive by water managers and freshwater biologists to develop a wide range of biomonitoring tools Furse et al. 2006 , continued effort will be required if society is to achieve the goal of sustainable use of water resources. The world faces a future where water resources will come under increasing pressure from climate change and population growth. Bioassessment techniques will be needed to assess the impact of newly identified...