Box 141 Modernworld factors that influence emerging and reemerging infectious diseases

• Population growth and increasing density (and persistence of crowded peri-urban poverty)

• Urbanization: changes in mobility and in social and sexual relations

• Globalization (distance, speed, volume) of travel and trade

• Intensified livestock production methods (especially inter-species contacts)

• Live animal markets: longer, quicker supply lines

• Changes to ecosystems (deforestation, biodiversity loss, etc.)

• Global climate change

• Biomedical exchange of tissues: transfusion, transplants, hypodermic injection

• Misuse of antibiotics (in humans and livestock)

(e.g. mammals and birds) that are integral to the spread of various human infectious diseases.

Human-induced global climate change is the best known of these contemporary "global environmental changes." This past decade this has progressed, in the assessment of scientists, from being a likely future problem, to a definite future problem, to now a process that is actually underway (IPCC, 2001; Karl and Trenberth, 2003). Climate change will affect the patterns of many of the infectious diseases that are known to be sensitive to climatic conditions - particularly various of the insect-borne infections and the infections that are spread person-to-person via contaminated food and water.

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