Notes on Contributors

Joseph J. Amon PhD MSPH is the director of the HIV/AIDS Program at Human Rights Watch based in New York. Before joining Human Rights Watch in 2005, Dr Amon worked for more than 15 years conducting research, designing programs, and evaluating interventions related to AIDS in Africa, the Caribbean region, and Eastern Europe. He has worked for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and a wide range of non-governmental organizations working on AIDS prevention and treatment. In addition to his work on HIV/AIDS and human rights, Dr Amon has conducted research on the molecular biology and epidemiology of malaria, hepatitis and AIDS-related opportunistic infections.

Andrew W. Artenstein MD FACP FIDSA is the Chief, Department of Medicine, Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island; the founder and Director of the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens; and an Associate Professor of Medicine and Community Health at Brown Medical School. Prior to coming to Brown, he served as a Principal Scientist and Infectious Disease Officer and Head of the Section of Protective Immunity in the Division of Retrovirology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, dividing his time between his lab in Washington DC and field sites in Thailand. His primary research efforts involve anthrax toxin pathogenesis and inhibition, biodefense vaccines, biomedical engineering approaches to infectious disease diagnostics, and bringing biodefense to vulnerable populations within communities. He serves on the editorial advisory board of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, and as a consultant on numerous governmental and academic advisory panels regarding biodefense and emerging infectious diseases.

Susan H. Baker MS Management has worked in the area of overseas development and emergency relief for the past 25 years and specializes in community development and institution building, with an emphasis on practical management and operational processes. Ms Baker has lived and worked in numerous countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as in the former Soviet Union. Her titles and responsibilities in the field have included community development consultant, assistant country director, country director, and emergency coordinator. Ms Baker has been an integral part of the international response to a number of emergencies, including those involving drought and famine, floods, genocide, and civil war. Ms Baker is Co-founder and Associate Director of the Center for Global Health at New York University School of Medicine, where she co-designed an integrated global health curriculum. The focus of her academic interests are the planning and coordination of outside aid interventions and the education and training of international and local field staff working in development and emergency relief. She holds a Master of Science degree in International Public Sector Management from the Robert F. Wagner School at New York University.

Stefan David Baral MD MSc MPH is a Community Medicine Resident at the University of British Columbia, and has just completed an MPH and MBA at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Stefan completed his undergraduate degree specializing in immunology and microbiology from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. He then went on to graduate school at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, where he studied novel vaccination strategies and was part of the Canadian Network for Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (CANVAC). Stefan completed his medical school at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, with a focus on international and public health issues. Dr Baral has worked in clinical settings ranging from inner-city methadone clinics in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to large tertiary care institutions in Kampala and Santiago.

John G. Bartlett MD is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. He served as Chief of the Infectious Disease Division at the School for 26 years, stepping down in June of 2006. Dr Bartlett received his undergraduate degree at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, and his medical degree at Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, New York. He trained in internal medicine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, and the University of Alabama, Birmingham, and he completed his fellowship training in Infectious Diseases at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Before accepting his position at the Johns Hopkins University, Dr Bartlett served as a faculty member at UCLA and Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston, Massachusetts, and was Associate Chief of Staff for research at the Boston VA Hospital. Dr Bartlett has worked in several areas of research, all related to his specialty in infectious diseases. His major research interests have included anaerobic infections, pathogenic mechanisms of Bacteroides fragilis, anaerobic pulmonary infections, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Since moving to Johns Hopkins, his major interests have been HIV/AIDS, managed care of patients with HIV infection, and bioterrorism. Dr Bartlett is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a master of the American College of Physicians, past president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and a recipient of the Kass Award from the IDSA. In 2005, Dr Bartlett was awarded the

Alexander Fleming Award by the IDSA and the Finland Award from the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). He has authored over 500 articles and reviews, more than 280 book chapters, and over 60 editions of 18 books, and has served on editorial boards for 19 medical journals.

Chris Beyrer MD MPH is Professor of Epidemiology and International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He serves as Director of Johns Hopkins Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, and as Founder and Director of the Center for Public Health and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins. He also serves as Senior Scientific Liaison and Chair of the Injecting Drug Use Working Group of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). He has an undergraduate degree in History from Hobart & Wm. Smith Colleges, obtained his medical degree from the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, NY, and did his public health and infectious diseases training at Johns Hopkins. Active in the international health arena since 1991, he has done research and public health work on substance use and HIV in Thailand, China, Burma, India, Laos, Tajikistan, and the Russia Federation. He is the author of the 1998 book War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia (Zed Books, London; St Martins Press, New York), and editor and contributor to Public Health and Human Rights: Evidence-Based Approaches with H.F. Pizer (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2007). Dr Beyrer has published extensively on HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention research, HIV vaccine research, and public health and human rights, and is the author of numerous articles and scientific papers. He has served as a consultant to the World Bank Institute, the World Bank Thailand Office, the Office for AIDS Research of the US NIH, the Levi Strauss Foundation, the US Military HIV Research Program, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, the Open Society Institute, the Royal Thai Army, and numerous other organizations.

Kenneth Bridbord MD MPH devoted the first 12 years of his 35-year federal government career to environmental health, initially with the US Environmental Protection Agency and later with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. For the past 12 years he has been responsible for the extramural programs of the Fogarty International Center; these programs are devoted to building research capacity in low- and middle-income countries to address global health threats from both communicable and non-communicable diseases.

David D. Celentano ScD MHS is Professor and Director of the Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Program and Deputy Chair of the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is Principal Investigator of the HIV Prevention Trials Unit for Thailand, for the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial in India, and for a series of investigator-initiated NIH grants in Thailand. He has been working on social and behavioral factors in HIV/AIDS since 1983, and has conducted a series of epidemiologic and behavioral intervention trials in the USA, Thailand, India, and Vietnam. He serves as Behavioral Sciences Work Group Chair for the HPTN, and has been a consultant to the Office of AIDS Research (NIH) and to various Institutes and Centers of the NIH. Dr Celentano received his ScD in Behavioral Sciences from the Johns Hopkins University.

Lin H. Chen MD FACP is the Director of the Travel Medicine Center at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and an Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. Her interests focus on travel medicine and tropical medicine, particularly emerging infectious diseases and their impact on travelers. Her additional interests include immigrant health, international adoption, and vaccines. She has served as an Associate Editor for Travel Medicine Advisor since 1997, and is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians. She serves on the Certificate Examination Committee of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the Professional Education Committee and the Research Committee of the International Society of Travel Medicine.

Jonathan Cohen LLB MPhil is the director of the Law and Health Initiative at the Open Society Institute. He oversees a range of legal assistance, litigation, and law reform efforts to advance public health goals worldwide. Mr Cohen was previously a researcher with the HIV/AIDS and Human Rights Program at Human Rights Watch, where he conducted numerous investigations of human rights violations linked to AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and North America. A Canadian lawyer, Mr Cohen served as a law clerk at the Supreme Court of Canada in 2001 and was co-editor-in-chief of the University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review. He holds degrees from Yale College, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Toronto Faculty of Law.

Thomas J. Daniels PhD is Associate Research Scientist in the Department of Biological Sciences at Fordham University. He is Co-director of the Vector Ecology Laboratory at the Louis Calder Center located in Westchester County, NY, a focus of emerging arthropod-borne diseases in the US. His research interests include population dynamics of arthropod vectors, disease emergence and changes in landscape, and host-parasite interactions.

Wendy Davis EdM is a research coordinator with the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She received her Master's degree from Harvard University's School of Education, and worked for the American Psychiatric Association on the development of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, the DSM-IV

She was the DSM-IV Project Coordinator and later the DSM-IV Editorial Coordinator and project coordinator for the DSM-IV Primary Care version. While at the APA she authored and edited numerous papers on the development of the DSM-IV and was the editor of a series of columns on specific issues in the development of DSM-IV for the journal Hospital and Community Psychiatry. At Johns Hopkins, she is involved with a series of projects considering HIV/AIDS and marginalized populations.

Richard C. Falco PhD is a medical entomologist and Associate Research Scientist at Fordham University, and is Co-Director of the Vector Ecology Laboratory, located at the Louis Calder Center, Fordham's biological field station in Armonk, New York. He also holds positions at New York Medical College, located in Valhalla, NY, where he is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine and a lecturer in the School of Public Health. Dr Falco received his PhD from Fordham University in 1987, and his dissertation was one of the first in the nation on the topic of deer-tick ecology. Dr Falco's research interests include the ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, risk assessment and development of surveillance strategies for tick and mosquito-borne diseases, biological control agents of vectors, the epidemiology of tick bites, and the ecology of invasive species.

Pierce Gardner MD is a consultant for the Fogarty Clinical Research Scholars Program at the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, and Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the Medical School at Stony Brook University, New York. For nine years Dr Gardner served as the liaison representative of the American College of Physicians to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). He also served in the Epidemic Intelligence Service at CDC, where he was the Chief of the Central Nervous System Viral Surveillance Unit. Dr Gardner has done extensive international work and has been a consultant for the World Health Organization and CDC. Dr Gardner has published more than 125 articles, reviews, and books, primarily dealing with immunization issues and health issues of international travel. He has a longstanding interest in adult immunization, and has served as editor of the most recent edition of the Guide for Adult Immunization, published by the American College of Physicians and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr Gardner graduated from Harvard Medical School and trained in Internal Medicine at the University of Washington and at Case Western Reserve. Dr Gardner did his fellowship training in Infectious Diseases at the Massachusetts General Hospital. His major academic appointments were at Harvard Medical School, the University of Chicago, and Stony Brook University.

Vivian Go PhD MA is Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She received her MA in International

Economics from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and her PhD in Social and Behavioral Sciences from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She has worked extensively in Asia, including Vietnam, India, and Thailand. Her research involves using qualitative and quantitative methods to examine barriers to HIV prevention among vulnerable populations. She is currently the Principal Investigator of a randomized controlled trial of a network-oriented HIV/STD behavioral prevention intervention among injection drug users in northern Vietnam, and co-investigator of an HIV/AIDS prevention trial in Chennai, India.

Duane J. Gubler ScD MS is Professor and Chair, Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii. He serves as Director, Asia-Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases. Dr Gubler is a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, and has spent his entire career working on tropical infectious diseases, with extensive field experience in Asia, the Pacific, tropical America, and Africa. He has published extensively in the area of vector-borne infectious diseases, and has served as Director of the Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, the National Center for Infectious Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 15 years. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Ronald Jay Lubelchek MD is Attending Physician in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the John H. Stroger, Jr Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois. He is a graduate of Wesleyan University and the University of Illinois School of Medicine, and a Member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Heather J. Lynch MD MPH is a general pediatrician with a strong interest in health promotion and disease prevention. She is a graduate of the Yale School of Medicine and the University of Washington Pediatric Residency Program. She was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at the University of Washington, where she received her Master of Public Health in Health Services with a research focus in pediatric oral health.

Edgar K. Marcuse MD MPH is Professor of Pediatrics and adjunct Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Washington (UW) Schools of Medicine and Public Health and Community Medicine, and Associate Medical Director at the Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle, WA. He graduated from Oberlin College (AB), Stanford University School of Medicine (MD), and the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine (MPH); trained in pediatrics at Boston's Children's Hospital and Seattle's Children's Hospital, and was a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer assigned to Washington State. He has served as a member and Chair of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee, a member of the AAP Committee on Infectious Disease, Associate Editor of the Red Book, and a member of the USPHS Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP). He has been involved in immunization, pediatrics, public health, and related education and research for more than 35 years. He has numerous publications relating to immunization, general pediatrics, and public health. He is co-editor of the American Academy of Pediatrics' AAP Grand Rounds, a monthly publication critiquing new studies relevant to pediatric practice.

Troy Martin MD received his medical degree from the University of Washington in 1999. He attended residency training in internal medicine, and served a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Brown University. In 2004 he joined the Brown University faculty, based at the Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, and is currently an Assistant Professor in Medicine. While there, he was a faculty member of the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens. In June 2006 he moved to Hanoi, Vietnam, where he is currently working for the William Jefferson Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative.

Anthony J. (Tony) McMichael MBBS PhD is Director of the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health at the Australian National University, Canberra. He was previously Professor of Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. His research interests have spanned occupational-environmental risks to health; food, nutrition, and disease; and, more recently, environmental changes and their impacts on health. Since 1993 he has participated in coordinating and reviewing the scientific assessment of health impacts for the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and has played a corresponding role in the international Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Project (2001-2005). He has been an advisor on environment and health to WHO, UN Environment Program and World Bank. Within the Earth System Science Partnership (International Council of Science), he co-chairs the new international research network on Global Environmental Change and Health. In addition to his many peer-reviewed published papers he has authored several books, including Human Frontiers, Environments and Disease: Past Patterns, Uncertain Futures (Cambridge University Press, 2001), and (as senior editor) Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and Responses (WHO/UNEP/WMO, 2003).

Shruti Mehta PhD MPH is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She has an undergraduate degree in Art Theory and Practice from Northwestern University, a Master's degree in Public Health from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and a PhD in infectious disease epidemiology again from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. She is the principal investigator of a longitudinal study on the incidence of HIV infection among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. She has published in the areas of HCV epidemiology and prevention, HIV and HCV co-infection, and access to care and treatment for HIV and HCV among injection drug users.

Marguerite A. Neill MD is Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine of the Brown Medical School. She obtained her MD degree from the George Washington University School of Medicine, and was an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer at CDC. In research conducted during an Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Washington, she was the first to demonstrate that E. coli O157:H7 is the predominant cause of the hemolytic ure-mic syndrome in the United States. She served on the National Committee for Microbiological Criteria in Foods, and was a member of the US Delegation of the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO. She has served as an advisor and expert consultant to the USDA, FDA, and WHO. She is Associate Director of the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Pathogens at Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, and is the Chair of the Bio-emergency Work Group of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Dr Neill is involved in bio-emergency education and preparedness locally and nationally. Her efforts have focused on improving clinical preparedness for bioterrorism and breaking public health events.

André-Jacques Neusy MD DTM&H is an Associate Professor of Medicine and the founding Director of the Center for Global Health at the New York University School of Medicine. He has served as coordinator of health programs for various international organizations, both in development and disaster settings, in Africa and the Balkans. Dr Neusy has first-hand experience in developing and implementing health strategies and programs in disaster and development settings, as well as creating cross-disciplinary education and training of health professionals involved in such efforts. An advisor to the Ministry of Health of Rwanda and the National University of Rwanda, his current research centers on global health workforce development. Dr Neusy, an active member of the Global Health Education Consortium, is also its immediate past president. He served as a consultant to and committee member of the Institute of Medicine's Board of Global Health, and is actively involved with various organizations working in poverty reduction and global health.

Peter L. Page MD is Vice President of the Atlantic Division of the American Red Cross Blood Services. After being on the staff at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, he has had 28 years experience with the Red Cross blood program, initially in a medical role, but assuming more operational responsibilities for blood collection, processing, testing, and distribution to hospitals in the Northeastern and Western United States. He has also been medical officer at the Red Cross headquarters in Washington DC. Trained in hematology and medical oncology at Harvard, he is also board-certified in blood banking (Pathology). He has served on the board of the National Marrow Donor Program, and serves on a number of committees of the American Association of Blood Banks.

Bjorg Palsdottir MPA is an organizational development consultant for global health, and Co-founder and Associate Director of the Center for Global Health at New York University School of Medicine. Prior to working for the Center Ms Palsdottir worked for the International Rescue Committee, an emergency relief and development organization, first at their headquarters in New York and then as a regional information coordinator for East and Central Africa. Her research interests focus on issues related to health systems and organizational development in the health sector, particularly in low-income countries. Most recently, Ms Palsdottir's work has included recommending models for human capacity development for the Institute's Committee on Options for Overseas Placement of US Health Professionals, used to advise the US Government as part of the President's $15 billion Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; the development of a management training program for field staff of development and relief agencies; and an evaluation of the American International Health Alliance's emergency medical training programs in the Ukraine, Russia, and Uzbekistan. Prior to working for humanitarian organizations she worked as a journalist for The Economist Intelligence Unit in New York, as well as for the Palestine-Israel Journal in Jerusalem. She holds a BA in economic journalism, a Master's degree in Public Administration, and a certificate in Management Training and Organizational Development from New York University.

Robert F. Pass MD is a Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. He received his medical degree from the University of Alabama, completed pediatric residency at Stanford University Medical Center, and trained in virology and infectious diseases at UAB. His research has been focused on congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, moving from studies of natural history and pathogenesis to epidemi-ological studies aimed at identifying sources of maternal infection, to vaccine clinical trials. He is currently conducting a NIAID (DMID) sponsored clinical trial of a CMV glycoprotein B subunit vaccine aimed at prevention of maternal and congenital CMV infection.

Aron Primack MD MA is a program officer at the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health, which provides for training for medical professionals and scientists from developing countries. He is a graduate of the Northwestern University School of Medicine, and completed a fellowship in

Oncology at the National Cancer Institute. For almost two decades he was a clinical medical oncologist and taught on the faculties of both Georgetown Medical School and George Washington Medical School. Dr Primack also has a Master's degree in Cultural Anthropology from the Catholic University, and served as Area Peace Corps Medical Officer for Niger, Chad, Mali, and Mauritania. He served as Medical Director in Program Integrity and Medical Director for the Center for Health Plans and Providers of the US Health Care Financing Administration in Washington, DC. Dr Primack also served as Associate Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, where he was responsible for the International Health courses and developed the curriculum for and taught medical anthropology.

Joshua P. Rosenthal PhD is an ecologist with a longstanding interest in the integration of environment, public health, and international development. He manages two interagency research and capacity-building programs on behalf of the Fogarty International Center. The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups combine biodiversity-based drug discovery, bioinventory, intellectual property management, and research capacity building in 15 countries around the world. The Ecology of Infectious Diseases program integrates field and mathematical analysis of disease dynamics with measures of population and environmental change to yield predictive tools. Dr Rosenthal is also Deputy Director of the Division of International Training and Research of the Fogarty International Center. He has authored a variety of technical, policy, and popular publications, including research reports, research topic reviews, magazine articles, opinion pieces, and one edited book on Biodiversity and Human Health. Dr Rosenthal serves on advisory panels for various US Government, United Nations, and World Health Organization programs on conservation of biodiversity, bioinfor-matics, genetic resources and biomedicine.

Frangiscos Sifakis PhD MPH is faculty Assistant Scientist in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr Sifakis received his MPH in Epidemiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, and his PhD in Infectious Disease Epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He directs the CDC-funded National HIV Behavioral Surveillance effort in Baltimore, Maryland. Dr Sifakis has worked extensively with hard-to-reach populations at the greatest risk of contracting HIV - such as men who have sex with men, and injection drug users. Current research concentrations of Dr Sifakis include developing and implementing surveillance methods for evolving environments of social and sexual interaction, including the Internet.

Ronald Waldman MD MPH has been working in humanitarian emergencies since the late 1970s. With colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention, he co-authored a series of papers that helped establish the epidemiology of refugee health. He is the founding Director of the Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, where he is currently Professor of Clinical Population and Family Health. His recent emergency and post-conflict work has been in Afghanistan, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Sudan.

Robert A. Weinstein MD is Chief Operating Officer of the outpatient Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center for the Prevention, Care, and Research of Infectious Diseases. He is also Chair of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the John Stroger (formerly Cook County) Hospital, Director of Infectious Disease Services for the Cook County Bureau of Health Services, and Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical College. He directs the Cook County component of the Rush/Cook County Infectious Diseases fellowship program. Dr Weinstein's clinical and research interests focus on hospital-acquired infections (particularly the epidemiology and control of antimicrobial resistance and infections in intensive care units), rapid HIV testing, and health-care costs and outcomes for patients with HIV/AIDS. Dr Weinstein is a past president of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), and immediate past-chair of the US Center for Disease Control's Federal Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). He was the first recipient of the National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems Clinical Research Award, was the 2005 recipient of the SHEA Lectureship Award, and has published over 250 scientific articles and book chapters, 2 books, 21 CDs, and Internet educational materials.

Bruce A. Wilcox MS PhD is Professor of Tropical Medicine, Director of the Asia-Pacific Center for Infectious Disease Ecology, Chair of the Division of Ecology and Health, and on the Graduate Faculty of the Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. As a graduate student at UCSD he co-founded the field of conservation biology and co-published its first text. He subsequently held research positions at Stanford University and in the private sector, where he continued to work at the interface of the environmental sciences, biodiversity conservation, and health. He joined the University of Hawaii's School of Medicine in 2001 to establish the first ecology and health unit in a US medical school, and led the creation of the peer review journal EcoHealth, serving as its Editor-in-Chief. He also established and directs a university-wide collaborative graduate research and training program on the ecology of infectious diseases of the tropical Asia-Pacific region.

Mary E. Wilson MD FACP is Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Associate Professor of Population and International Health at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr Wilson's main academic interests include tuberculosis, the ecology of infections and emergence of microbial threats, travel medicine, and vaccines. She served as Chief of Infectious Diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge for more than 20 years. She is a Fellow in the Infectious Diseases Society of America. She served on the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control from 1988 to 1992, and has been a member of the Academic Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico. She has also served on four committees for the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, including the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. She is author of A World Guide to Infections: Diseases, Distribution, Diagnosis (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991) and senior editor, with Richard Levins and Andrew Spielman, of Disease in Evolution: Global Changes and Emergence of Infectious Diseases (New York Academy of Sciences, 1994).

Rosalie E. Woodruff BAComm MPH PhD is a research fellow at the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University. Dr Woodruff is the convenor of the Environmental Health research group. Her area of expertise is climatic influences on health, in particular on patterns of mosquito-borne disease transmission, and the seasonality of respiratory and cardiovascular infections. She has undertaken a number of climate-change impact assessments, including a major assessment for the Australian Department of Health and Ageing in 2003, and for the Australian Medical Association and the Australian Conservation Foundation in 2005. She is a contributor and reviewer for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (Chapters on Australia and New Zealand, and Human Health). She is contributing to the development of global and national climate-change burden of disease guidelines for the World Health Organization.

Gary P. Wormser MD is Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology, Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and Vice Chairman of the Department of Medicine at New York Medical College. He is Chief of the Section of Infectious Diseases at Westchester Medical Center, and Director and Founder of the Lyme Disease Practice, a well-respected walk-in clinic for the care and study of patients with tick-borne infections. Dr Wormser is a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and completed his Infectious Diseases fellowship at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. His principal research interests include Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well as HIV infection, infection control, and investigational antimicrobial agents and vaccine preparations. He is on the editorial board of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases and Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. Dr Wormser is the author of more than 350 published papers, and editor of a leading textbook on AIDS, AIDS and Other Manifestations ofHIVInfection (Academic Press, 2004), now in its fourth edition.

Stephen H. Zinner MD, a board-certified specialist in Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, is the Charles S. Davidson Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School, and Chair of the Department of Medicine at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Formerly he was Professor of Medicine at Brown University School of Medicine and Director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Rhode Island and Roger Williams Hospitals, both in Providence, Rhode Island. Dr Zinner received his BA from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia. He completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Chicago Hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, followed by research fellowships in Medicine and in Bacteriology and Immunology at Harvard Medical School and Boston City Hospital. He served an Infectious Diseases fellowship at the Channing Laboratory and Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Harvard Medical Service at the Boston City Hospital. Dr Zinner's research is focused on antimicrobial pharmacodynamics and infections in cancer patients.

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