Reservoir and routes of transmission

Humans are the only source of human CMV infection. Transmission of CMV from person to person appears to require direct contact with body fluids. Cytomegalovirus is present in saliva, urine, semen, cervico-vaginal secretions, tears, milk, and blood, and CMV is, predictably, transmitted in settings in which susceptible persons have contact with body fluids from persons with CMV infection. Infectious aerosols and airborne virus particles do not appear to be important in transmission of CMV. Compared with respiratory viruses or varicella, agents that are often transmitted by these routes, CMV is not highly contagious. Cytomegalovirus can also be transmitted by blood products and organs transplanted from CMV seropositive donors to CMV seronegative recipients.

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