Todays responders

The world's ability to respond to epidemics rests on the operational capacity of an amalgamation of diverse agencies and organizations. These include several multinational organizations; sundry national, regional, and local government agencies; various non-governmental organizations; and a host of diverse public and private health-care institutions and providers that together form our existing global health infrastructure. Figure 16.1 depicts an example of the vast array of

National Stakeholders

International Stakeholders

Types of Initiatives

Local Public Sector

Ministry of Health

Min. of Cooperation

Min. of Education

Civil Sector

Local NGOs

Religious Groups

Private Sector

Insurance Schemes

Health Industry

Private Care Providers

National AIDS Commissions

National AIDS Research Center

Bilateral Agencies such as: USAID, NORAD, CIDA, RNE, SIDA, GTZ, DIFD

Sector and Program Specific Bilateral Agencies and Programs such as: PEPFAR, CDC, NIH, HHS

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UN Programs, Funds and Agencies: WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNDP, UNiFEM, WPF, World Bank, FAO

Various Program Coordination Committees

Regional Organizations EC, ECA

Provincial and

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Municipal AIDS

International NGOs

Commissions

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Universities & Academic Programs

Private-Public Partnerships such as: Global Fund, GAP, IAVI-GSK, and CCAIDS

Bilateral Agencies such as: USAID, NORAD, CIDA, RNE, SIDA, GTZ, DIFD

Sector and Program Specific Bilateral Agencies and Programs such as: PEPFAR, CDC, NIH, HHS

Universities & Academic Programs

Private-Public Partnerships such as: Global Fund, GAP, IAVI-GSK, and CCAIDS

Figure 16.1 Typical stakeholder relationships in country receiving international aid for HIV/AIDS.

organizations typically involved in programs related to one disease in one developing country. These diverse organizations often compete for funding and have different missions and priorities; sometimes they have overlapping roles; they may also have differing levels of power and resources, and limited (if any) experience in effective inter-institutional, even intra-organizational coordination, communication and collaboration. Without clear protocols, and linked organizational and communication structures, the increasing number of actors involved in infectious disease control and prevention perpetuates fragmentation of services and disparities in policy and program development (Neusy, 2004; Travis et al, 2004; Kickbush and Buse, 2005).

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