Upper respiratory infections

These are usually the most common cause of morbidity, but there is little information about the specific agents (Connolly et al., 2004; Salama et al., 2004; Wilder-Smith, 2005). The risk appears to reflect crowding and lack of hygiene. Serious consequences, including pneumonia and occasional mortality, are shown primarily in children. In 1993, 30 percent of deaths in children aged under five years in Kabul, Afghanistan, were attributed to URIs (Gessner, 1994). Some of these were presumably due to pneumonia, but, again, specific agents are usually not defined (Talley et al, 200l).

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