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Fig. 2.7 Two examples of fungi reported to infect free-living primates. (a) Photomicrograph of Candida albicans. (b) Photomicrograph of Histoplasma capsulatum. Both images reproduced from Public Health Image Library, 2004, Image credits CDC/Dr Stuart Brown and

Fig. 2.7 Two examples of fungi reported to infect free-living primates. (a) Photomicrograph of Candida albicans. (b) Photomicrograph of Histoplasma capsulatum. Both images reproduced from Public Health Image Library, 2004, Image credits CDC/Dr Stuart Brown and

among protozoa infecting primates (Pedersen et al. 2005). Important examples of vector-borne protozoa in primates include more than 20 species of Plasmodium (Garnham 1966; Deane etal. 1969; Coatney etal. 1971; Davies etal. 1991; see Box 8.1), and over ten species of Trypanosoma and Leishmania (Lainson et al. 1989). In many cases, these blood-borne parasites complete critical stages of their life cycles within infected arthropods and are transmitted to vertebrates through the saliva or feces of biting insects. Other protozoa that infect primates, such as Giardia and Entamoeba (Freeland 1979; Stuart et al. 1998; Rothman and Bowman 2003), are intestinal parasites spread when animals ingest spores or cysts resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Finally, a few protozoa, such as those in the genus Sarcocystis, can inhabit primates as intermediate hosts by encysting in muscle tissue, with carnivores representing the definitive host (McConnell et al. 1974).

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