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f: statistical results not provided

*: Müller-Graf et al. (1997) used a significance level of a = 0.01, with p = 0.041 for sex differences in intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thep-value for sex differences in prevalence was 0.081.

f: statistical results not provided

*: Müller-Graf et al. (1997) used a significance level of a = 0.01, with p = 0.041 for sex differences in intensity of infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thep-value for sex differences in prevalence was 0.081.

reported higher prevalence in females (e.g. Hausfater and Watson 1976; Pope 1998), whereas others reported higher prevalence in males (Müller-Graf et al. 1997). At least one study of primates provided evidence supporting the importance of encounter with parasites in the environment. In this study, Müller-Graf (1997) found that males more frequently contacted water containing infectious stages of Schistosoma mansoni, resulting in higher prevalence of this parasite among males

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