Ecosystems As Cybernetic Systems

The cybernetic nature of ecosystems, from patch to global scales, has been a central theme of ecosystem ecology. J. Lovelock (1988) suggested that autotroph-heterotroph interactions have been responsible for the development and regulation of atmospheric composition and climate that are suitable for the persistence of life. The ability of ecosystems to minimize variability in climate and rates of energy and nutrient fluxes would affect responses to anthropogenic changes in global conditions.

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