Bees food quality and body temperature

In bees, it appears that food quality modulates thermal behaviour. For example, workers of the Asian honeybees A. cerana and A. dorsata landing at highly congested feeders tend to have higher Tth, and congestion depends on food quality (Dyer and Seeley 1987). Similarly, the Himalayan honeybee A. laboriosa maintains high temperature excesses when arriving at feeders to collect concentrated sugar solution (Underwood 1991). Thermal imaging has proved a valuable technique in studying this...

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Stoffolano (1995) has referred to the midgut as the least studied, but largest, endocrine tissue in insects. 2.2.3 Regulation of protein and carbohydrate intake Waldbauer and Friedman (1991) defined self-selection of optimal diets as a continuous regulation of intake involving frequent shifts between foods. The fact that insects perceive nutritional deficiencies, and alter behaviour to correct them, has been clearly illustrated by application of the geometrical approach to protein and...

Metabolic rate variation size

Discontinuous gas exchange in ticks is thought to be one of the ways in which these animals maintain the very low metabolic rates required by their sit-and-wait strategy, which includes long periods of fasting (Lighton and Fielden 1995). Scorpions are also thought to have uncharacteristically low metabolic rates, and this has prompted considerable speculation regarding the benefits of low metabolic rates in both groups (Lighton et al. 2001). In turn, this speculation has raised the question of...

Microhabitats and activity

The significance of microclimate ( climate of the microhabitat, see Section 4.4.1) in the thermal and water balance of insects was reviewed by Willmer (1982). The critical parameters are temperature and the moisture content of the air, continuously modified by solar radiation and air movement. Steep gradients are common near the ground (both above and below the surface), and climate can be greatly modified in boundary layers, especially when vegetation is present to transpire, provide shade and...

Nutritional physiology and ecology

An understanding of insect ecology has been nutritional physiology. Diverse insect diets are associated with entirely different constraints liquid diets come with a weight or volume problem, solid diets require mechanical breakdown without damage to the gut, plant diets are poor in nutrients, and animal meals are unpredictable in time and space (Dow 1986). Most species of holometabolous insect could be represented in Fig. 2.1 by two linked circles, as a result of vastly different diets in the...

Metabolism and gas exchange

The concept that insect respiration depends only on diffusion supplemented in larger species by ventilation is in need of an overhaul the situation is much more complex. Insects, like all living organisms, are far-from-equilibrium, dissipative structures. That is, they actively take up energy and nutrients and in doing so alter both themselves and their surrounding environment. Initially, the changes in both directions might appear insignificant, but on a longer time scale their impact can be...

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles

Gaseous Exchange Cycle

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles DGCs are one of the most striking gas exchange patterns shown by insects. Discontinuous gas exchange was originally described in adult insects Punt et al. 1957 Wilkins 1960 , but it was the investigation of DGCs in diapausing saturniid pupae by Schneiderman and his colleagues e.g. Schneiderman 1960 Levy and Schneiderman 1966a,b Schneiderman and Schechter 1966 that resulted in a comprehensive understanding both of the pattern and the mechanisms underlying it....