Cold hardiness classifications

Example Anhydrobiosis

The classification of insect cold hardiness strategies has essentially revolved around whether the temperature at which ice nucleation, or freezing of the body fluids, starts to take place in the extracellular spaces (the crystallization temperature, Tc, or SCP) represents the LLT for the insect. If it does not, then clearly the animal has some measure of freezing tolerance, whereas if the SCP and LLT are equivalent, the animal is freeze intolerant. In Section 5.2.3, we showed that in many...

Info

Stoffolano (1995) has referred to the midgut as the least studied, but largest, endocrine tissue in insects. 2.2.3 Regulation of protein and carbohydrate intake Waldbauer and Friedman (1991) defined self-selection of optimal diets as a continuous regulation of intake involving frequent shifts between foods. The fact that insects perceive nutritional deficiencies, and alter behaviour to correct them, has been clearly illustrated by application of the geometrical approach to protein and...

Metabolism and gas exchange

The concept that insect respiration depends only on diffusion supplemented in larger species by ventilation is in need of an overhaul the situation is much more complex. Insects, like all living organisms, are far-from-equilibrium, dissipative structures. That is, they actively take up energy and nutrients and in doing so alter both themselves and their surrounding environment. Initially, the changes in both directions might appear insignificant, but on a longer time scale their impact can be...

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles

Gaseous Exchange Cycle

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles DGCs are one of the most striking gas exchange patterns shown by insects. Discontinuous gas exchange was originally described in adult insects Punt et al. 1957 Wilkins 1960 , but it was the investigation of DGCs in diapausing saturniid pupae by Schneiderman and his colleagues e.g. Schneiderman 1960 Levy and Schneiderman 1966a,b Schneiderman and Schechter 1966 that resulted in a comprehensive understanding both of the pattern and the mechanisms underlying it....