Crawling running carrying

Although insects are best known as a group of flying arthropods, they spend much of their time running, hopping, or crawling (especially the

Source: Nicolson and Louw. Journal of Experimental Zoology 222. © 1982. Reprinted by permission of Wiley-Liss, Inc., a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Non-flying Hovering Hovering Winter 2 days 75 mg load 88 kPa African

Figure 3.19 Metabolic rates during flight in honeybees under various conditions.

Note: European honeybees (A. mellifera ligustica): non-flying, walking and grooming, hovering at 20 and 45°C, winter bees at 20°C, two-day-old bees at 20°C, hovering with a 75 mg nectar load, flying in 88kPa air, and Africanized honeybee (A. m. scutellata) flying at 22°C.

Source: Reprinted from Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 133, Harrison and Fewell, 323-333, © 2002, with permission from Elsevier.

Non-flying Hovering Hovering Winter 2 days 75 mg load 88 kPa African

Figure 3.19 Metabolic rates during flight in honeybees under various conditions.

Note: European honeybees (A. mellifera ligustica): non-flying, walking and grooming, hovering at 20 and 45°C, winter bees at 20°C, two-day-old bees at 20°C, hovering with a 75 mg nectar load, flying in 88kPa air, and Africanized honeybee (A. m. scutellata) flying at 22°C.

Source: Reprinted from Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 133, Harrison and Fewell, 323-333, © 2002, with permission from Elsevier.

air—Casey 1989). By contrast, in honeybees metabolic rate increases with an increase in load carried (which can equal body mass in undertaker honeybees) (Wolf et al. 1989; Feuerbacher et al. 2003), and

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