Id

Figure 5.22 (Continued).

of mild winter periods without the need for extensive seasonal cold hardening.

Based on these conclusions, Sinclair et al. (2003c) suggested that in unpredictable environments, freeze-intolerant species should hedge their bets, thus resulting in low SCPs in some individuals irrespective of the season (see Klok and Chown

1998b; Bale et al. 2001 for evidence of this), and that freeze-intolerant species should also show rapid cold hardening. Rapid cold hardening has indeed been demonstrated in many freeze-intolerant species (Table 5.1). In the only freeze tolerant species that has been examined to date, the caterpillar P. marioni (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) from

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