20 30 40

Shade temperature (°C)

Figure 6.14 The proportion of returning honeybees (Apis mellifera caucasica) extruding fluid droplets increases with air temperature in the Sonoran Desert. Nectar and water collectors shown by hollow circles. Pollen gatherers (solid circles) did not extrude fluid, and the proportion of bees returning with pollen (triangles) declined at high Ta.

more moderate Ta (up to 35°C) (Nicolson and Louw 1982; Roberts et al. 1998).

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