Xx

Lepidoptera

s

s,f s s,f

Hymenoptera

s

s,f s s,f

Notes: s = freeze intolerant; f = freezing tolerant; n = no cold hardiness; —= life stage not present; x = no published data.

Notes: s = freeze intolerant; f = freezing tolerant; n = no cold hardiness; —= life stage not present; x = no published data.

Source: Taken from Sinclair et al. (2003c).

Marion Island, rapid cold hardening is absent, as might be expected from a species that can freeze to a moderate degree and thaw repeatedly with little risk (Sinclair and Chown 2003). Sinclair et al. (2003c) also suggested that the differences between climates in the two hemispheres and species responses to them may have profound implications for the large-scale distribution of species richness and the responses of species to climate change.

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