Long And Complex Calling

Long signals are not necessarily complex. For example, many cicadas, crickets and bushcrickets call for extremely long periods of time, either alone or in a chorus with calls that have little structure except a repeated syllable. Such stereotyped calling inevitably has high redundancy, providing advantage within the noise of the habitat and the calls of other insects. The pattern of the calling male may contain species' information and where species are syntopic, females are usually able to...

Mechanisms Of Sound Production

As Henry (Chapter 10) emphasises here, insects are preadapted to be noisy animals. With a hard and sclerotised exoskeleton, the segmented form of the body and jointed limbs will inevitably cause vibrations in the surrounding environment when an insect moves. It will be very difficult for insects to move silently without making a noise. It is not surprising that many groups have developed specialised systems of sound production and associated receptors which are used in communication within and...

Central Mechanisms Of Vibration Localisation In Insects

In comparison with mechanisms of sound localisation in insects (reviewed by Gerhardt and Huber, 2002), processing of vibratory signals in the central nervous system has been very poorly studied and we are still far from understanding how information from vibration receptors is integrated and in turn controls orientation behaviour. In comparison with sound localisation in crickets, for example, localisation of a vibratory source is less amenable to experimental analysis. Most of the insects that...

Crickets Orthoptera Gryllidae

Field measurements of Th in crickets suggest that most are thermoconformers (Prestwich and Walker, 1981 Toms et al., 1993). This accounts for the cricket thermometers. The acoustic parameters which are the result of temperature-dependent systems (e.g. nerve and muscle) exhibit thermal dependency as well. There is a temperature dependency for pulse frequency, wing stroke rate, pulse length, interpulse interval and carrier frequency in crickets (Brooks, 1882 Dolbear, 1897 Bessey and Bessey, 1898...

Comparison Of Morphology Physiology And Development Of The Receptor Organs

Campaniform Sensilla

In bushcrickets, auditory-vibratory communication plays an important role in reproductive behaviour, agonistic interactions, detection of predators and for general acoustic orientation in the environment. The most important and physiologically dominant receptor organs of the bimodal auditory-vibratory sensory system are the complex tibial organs of all six legs. Complex tibial organs are present in the pro metathoracic, mesometathoracic, and metathoracic legs. In each leg, the complex tibial...

Vibration Reception In Plantdwelling Bugs

Subgenual Organ

The song repertoire of terrestrial Heteroptera is described in detail by Gogala Chapter 21 . Although the communication value of contact vibration or rhythmic touch together with near field air particle movement cannot be excluded at short distances, boundary vibrations in the form of bending waves Michelsen et al., 1982 are the most important carriers of substrate-borne information. Legs are in close contact with the substrate and, as such, are the sites of most sensitive substrate-borne...

Sound Production the Tymbal and Its Sound Anatomy of the Tymbal

What The Purpose The Cicada

With respect to behaviour it is of particular significance that the fully developed tymbal system is only found in males. Detailed descriptions are given elsewhere notably Carlet, 1877a, 1877b Vogel, 1923 Pringle, 1954, 1957 Young, 1972 Michel, 1975 Bennet-Clark, 1999b . It consists of two symmetrical membranes, the drums or cymbals of Casserius 1600 and Reaumur 1740 , usually known as tymbals. They are found dorso-laterally on the first abdominal segment Figure 25.1 . In some species, females...

Sound Register and Biotope

Seemingly the environment in which every species normally lives has an influence on the type of sound emission. For example, forest species generally call in a frequency range totally different from that of grassland species. In fact the relative size of the various cicadas is the determining factor. Forest species are mostly large or larger than average. By contrast, species of very open areas are almost always small or smaller than average. figure 25.8 Purana tigrina Walker . Acoustic...