Berothidae

Only wing fluttering has been reported from the "beaded lacewings". This is a small but widespread family of about 60 species, belonging to a clade, Mantispoidea, which includes Rhachiberothidae, Mantispidae (mantis flies) and Dilaridae (pleasing lacewings) (Willmann, 1990; Aspock, 2002). MacLeod and Adams (1967) describe courting individuals of North American Lomamyia spp. lifting their wings to a horizontal position and alternately "vibrating" these at one another in a brief duet before copulating, which is reminiscent of "wing fanning" behaviour in the sisyrid Climacia areolaris (Brown, 1952). Within the Mantispoidea, it is not known whether such behaviour is unique to Berothidae or also present in one or more of the other three families. The phylogenetic position of Mantispoidea within the Neuroptera is not well understood, making interpretation of character origin and evolution difficult. However, wing fluttering in Berothidae appears to be simple and therefore perhaps evolutionarily labile; as such, the trait might not have larger phylogenetic significance. Thus, the occurrence of wing fluttering in disparate taxa such as Berothidae, Corydalidae, Raphidiidae, Sisyridae and Coniopterygidae (see above) could be incidental, that is, a consequence of convergent evolution.

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