Contents

Introduction 81

Behavioural Studies of Localisation Abilities 82

Cues for Orientation 84

Vibrations in Different Substrates 86

Differences in Time and Amplitude 87

Water Surface 88

Sand 88

Plants 88

Other Directional Cues 89

Orientation Cues in Small Insects 90

Time and Amplitude Cues 90

Behavioural Strategies 91

Distance Determination 92

Central Mechanisms of Vibration Localisation in Insects 92

Model Networks 93

Processing of Vibratory Signals in the Central Nervous System 93

Recognition vs. Localisation 94

Comparison of Insects with other Arthropods 95

Concluding Remarks and Suggestions for Further Studies 96

Acknowledgements 97

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