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FIGURE 5.1 The relationship between target angle and turn angle in waterstrider, Gerris remigis (Heteroptera: Gerridae) (a), backswimmer, Notonecta undulata (Heteroptera: Notonectidae) (b) and between target angle and tossing angle in antlion, Euroleon nostras (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) (c). Turns towards the right and left are given as positive and negative angles, respectively. Zero degree is directly ahead, 180° is directly behind. (Redrawn and modified from (a) Murphey, R. K. Z. Vergl. Physiol., 72, 168-185,1971b, Figure 1,p. 171. With permission from Springer-Verlag; (b) Murphey, R.K. and Mendenhall, B. J. Comp. Physiol., 84, 19-30, 1973, Figure 2, p. 21. With permission from Springer-Verlag; (c) Mencinger, B. Acta Zool. Fennica, 209, 157-161, 1998, Figure 3a, p. 159. With permission from Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.)

of vibrations, either on two-dimensional surfaces or at branching points, these experiments provide little information about the underlying mechanisms of localisation.

In insects, vibration receptors (campaniform sensilla, scolopidial organs including chordotonal organs and subgenual organ) are located primarily in all six legs (Chapter 3). An insect therefore has a spatial array of mechanoreceptors positioned on the substrate and a vibratory signal travelling through the substrate arrives at each leg at different times and with

Male behaviour

Control

Stimulation

Emitting vibratory signals

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