FIGURE 6.2 The relationship of body size and frequency among 51 species in the family Membracidae. (a) Relationship between size and dominant frequency; (b) phylogenetically independent contrasts between size and dominant frequency; (c) relationship between size and the lowest frequency in the signal.

which showed significant phylogenetic signal; if we examine the phylogenetically independent contrasts, the results are qualitatively similar with a marginally significant relationship between size and dominant frequency (Figure 6.2c; N = 50 contrasts, r2 = .07, slope = — .45, p = .06).

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