Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Keto Resource

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Keto Resource Summary


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Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and structural materials such as cellulose. All have the empirical chemical formula (CH2O)n. For example, glucose is C6H12O6, so n is 6. Glyceraldehyde is one of the simplest carbohydrates, with an n of 3. The large number of hydroxide groups on carbohydrates renders them hydrophilic. Carbohydrates are classified into several groups Monosaccharides are the simplest and are building blocks for the others. They have relatively low molar masses, and n in the formula can range from 3 to 9. Monosaccharides can form chains, called polymers, producing disacchar-ides, which are formed from pairs of monosaccharides, or the long-chain polysaccharides, which can have molar masses as high as 1 million. Large molecules such as polysaccharides, proteins, or DNA are called macromolecules.

Principal Types of Adjustments Plant Form Function and Lifecycle Acclimation

While the structural changes that plants undergo can be radical, the acclimatory adjustments at the molecular, biochemical, and physiological level are equally remarkable. For example, the primary pathways of energy metabolism, respiration and photosynthesis, are both subject to considerable regulation. When able to produce an abundance of carbohydrates, plants upregulate pathways for utilization (including respiration, and investment into additional growth and reproduction) and storage. If the demand for utilization and storage of carbon lags behind the production of sugars through photosynthesis, then the enzymes and electron-transport components of photosynthesis are downregulated. On the other hand, if the consumption of sugars exceeds their supply, then photosynthesis is upregulated in the source leaves to meet the demand of the plant for the carbohydrates. Also upregulated are enzymes responsible for converting photosynthetically produced sugars to the types of sugars...

The Substances Of Life

A useful simplification of biological organisms sometimes made by environmental engineers and scientists is to view them as catalysts for chemical reactions, such as the oxidation of ammonia or ferrous iron, or production of methane and carbon dioxide from acetic acid. Such a view hides the detailed mechanisms, including the sequence of chemical intermediates and the specific chemical nature of the catalyst. Examining these details will help us to understand more complex chemical interactions between organisms and their environment, such as biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals or the effect of chemicals on the health of organisms and ecosystems. The details of biochemistry begin with knowledge of the four most important types of chemical substances comprising living things carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Later, in the chapters on toxicology, we consider the biochemical reactions involving xenobiotic compounds (those that are, literally, foreign to life,'' that...

Food componentEnergy kcalg

The gross energy of tissues depends on the combination of these basic constituents, particularly in animals. In plant tissues, energy content remains relatively uniform and in the region of 4.0-4.2 kcal g. Plant parts with a high oil content such as seeds (over 5 kcal g), or evergreen plants with waxes and resins such as conifers and alpine plants (4.7 kcal g), are the exceptions (Golley 1961 Robbins 1983).

The Composition Of Living Things

Four groups of compounds are of primary importance in living things carbohydrates (including sugars, starches, cellulose, and glycogen), lipids (fats and oils), proteins, and nucleic acids (which form DNA and RNA). The first three of these form the majority of cell dry weight and are important for structural material, energy metabolism, and other metabolic functions. Nucleic acids are significant in reproduction and in energy metabolism. Finally, there are many compounds that do not fit neatly into these categories or may be hybrids of two or more.

Eukaryotic Cell Structure And Function

Several organelles are unique to plants and plantlike protists. Chief among these is the chloroplast. The chloroplast is the site where energy from light is captured in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the production of carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O using light energy it is the reverse reaction to respiration and is the basis for the production of almost all organic matter by the biosphere. The chloroplast and the mitochondrion have many

The construction and composition of freshwater phytoplankton

The intracellular protoplasm (cytoplasm) is generally a viscous, gel-like suspension in which the nucleus, one or more plastids and various other organelles, including the endoplas-mic reticulum and the mitochondria, and some condensed storage products are maintained. The plastids vary hugely and interspecifically in shape - from a solitary axial cup (as in the Volvocales), numerous discoids (typical of centric diatoms), one or two broad parietal or axial plates (as in Cryptophytes) or more complex shapes (many desmids). All take on the intense coloration of the dominant photosyn-thetic pigments they contain - chlorophyll a and p-carotene and, variously, other chlorophylls and or accessory xanthophylls. The stored condensates of anabolism are also conspicuously variable among the algae starch in the chloro-phytes and cryptophytes, other carbohydrates in the euglenoids (paramylon) and the Chryso-phyceae, oils in the Xanthophyceae). Many also store protein in the cytoplasm. The...

Resource Requirements

Insects feed on a wide variety of plant, animal, and dead organic matter. Dietary requirements for all insects include carbohydrates amino acids cholesterol B vitamins and inorganic nutrients, such as P, K, Ca, Na, etc. (R. Chapman 2003, Rodriguez 1972, Sterner and Elser 2002). Insects lack the ability to produce their own cellulases to digest cellulose. Nutritional value of plant material often is limited further by deficiency in certain requirements, such as low content of N (Mattson 1980), Na (Seastedt and Crossley 1981b, Smedley and Eisner 1995), or linoleic acid (Fraenkel and Blewett 1946). Resources differ in ratios among essential nutrients, resulting in relative limitation of some nutrients and potentially toxic levels of others (Sterner and Elser 2002). High lignin content toughens foliage and other tissues and limits feeding by herbivores without reinforced mandibles. Toxins or feeding deterrents in food resources increase the cost, in terms of search time, energy, and...

Organisms as food resources

Molecules (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). These become the resources for heterotrophic organisms (decomposers, parasites, predators and grazers), which take part in a chain of events in which each consumer of a resource becomes, in turn, a resource for another consumer. At each link in this food chain the most obvious distinction is between saprotrophs and predators (defined broadly).

Variation in Food Quality

Food quality varies widely among resource types. Plant material has relatively low nutritional quality because N usually occurs at low concentrations and most plant material is composed of carbohydrates in the form of indigestible cellulose and lignin.Woody tissues are particularly low in labile resources readily available to insects or other animals. Plant detrital resources may be impoverished in important nutrients as a result of weathering, leaching, or plant resorption prior to shedding senescent tissues.

Oxidation of Fats and Amino Acids

The acetyl-CoAs produced then enter the Krebs cycle, where they are further oxidized. In addition, for every acetyl-CoA formed, one NADH2 and one FADH2 are formed, feeding the electron transport system production of ATP. This accounts for the high-energy yield of fats in comparison to carbohydrates.

Cephalochordata See Chordata

Cereal A plant that yields a starchy grain used as food for animals and humans. Cereals (e.g. barley) are also used in the brewing industry. Most cereals are grasses, e.g. barley, corn (maize), sorghum, oats, rice, rye, and wheat. Wheat is the world's most widely grown cereal, a staple food in temperate regions and one of the oldest cereals known. Milling of wheat dates back at least 75 000 years. Rice is the second largest cereal crop, grown mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Asia. Cereals grain are rich in carbohydrates but relatively low in protein.

Structure And Physiology Of Angiosperms

The root is the underground portion of the sporophyte. Their main function is anchorage and absorption, but they may also be used in storage (as in carrots and potatoes). Monocots form a shallow fibrous root system. Gymnosperms and most dicots form a main root called a taproot that grows straight down. Roots of some trees have been found to penetrate 30 to 50 m into the soil. Most of the tree roots involved in absorption are in the top 15 cm and extend out beyond the crown of the tree. Roots of the corn plant (Zea mays) penetrate up to 1.5 m, and spread horizontally 1 m around the plant. The surface area of roots is greatly increased by the formation of root hairs, which grow from cells at the surface of the roots (Figure 7.3). As the plant grows, it maintains a balance between the leaf surface area and root surface area, so that water, minerals, and carbohydrates are formed in the proper proportion for growth. The roots absorb minerals by active

Chemical Structure and Stable Isotopic Ratio of Plant Carbon Forming Soil Organic Matter

Most plant-derived carbon belongs to a small number of chemical compounds, mainly carbohydrates, lipids, lignin, and proteins. Some of these, like carbohydrates or proteins, are very good energy sources for soil organisms and are less stable in soil than lignin or lipids (Gleixner et al, 2001a). As a consequence, the decomposition rate of plant litter will change with litter quality and stable plant-derived molecules may accumulate in the soil as a result of decomposition. Wood is the most abundant plant biomass component and it mainly consists of cellulose and lignin (Fig. 3.3A&B). Cellulose is less stable than lignin, and so lignin accumulates during wood decomposition, i.e., it is selectively preserved. This is well known for decomposition via brown rot fungi (Gleixner et al, 1993).

Oxygenation and Photorespiration

The rate of photosynthetic carbon assimilation is determined by both the supply and demand for CO2. The supply of CO2 to the chloroplast is governed by diffusion in the gas and liquid phases and can be limited at several points in the pathway from the air surrounding the leaf to the site of carboxyla-tion inside. The demand for CO2 is determined by the rate of processing the CO2 in the chloroplast which is governed by the structure and biochemistry of the chloroplast (Sect. 2.1), by environmental factors such as irradiance, and factors that affect plant demand for carbohydrates (Sect. 4.2). Limitations imposed by either supply or demand can determine the overall rate of carbon assimilation, as explained below.

Dissolved organic matter DOM

There is little precise information regarding the quantities and chemical nature of these compounds, but a growing list of substances identified in seawater includes various hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, urea, aminoacids, organic pigments, lipids, alcohols, and vitamins such as ascorbic acid and components of the vitamin B complex, e.g. thiamin and cobalamin.

Anaerobic Metabolism and the Pasteur Effect

Carbon dioxide is produced in both aerobic respiration and alcoholic fermentation. At equal rates of glycolysis, the ratio of anaerobic CO2 production to aerobic CO2 production is 1 3. When anaerobic CO2 production exceeds this ratio, it is known as the Pasteur effect. The Pasteur effect is caused by an increased rate of sugar oxidation through glycolysis. Rapid glycolysis offsets the decreased rate of ATP production in anaerobic metabolism (Summers et al. 2000). In an example of an unusually enhanced Pasteur effect, Summers and others (2000) showed that the rate of glycolysis in Potamogeton pectinatus tubers was roughly six times faster in anaerobic conditions than in air. The increased rate of glyco-lysis resulted in rapid stem growth from the tubers. Overwintering tubers are rich in carbohydrates, and the breakdown of these probably fuels rapid glycolysis. The Pasteur effect has also been observed in rice coleoptiles. In a study of two cultivars of rice, the more flood-tolerant of...

Host search versus food foraging

In addition to the issue of host-feeding, parasitoids can also be divided according to the spatial association between host and carbohydrate sources. A first group includes those parasitoid species whose hosts are closely linked to carbohydrate-rich food sources. This applies to species whose hosts excrete suitable sugars, e.g. honeydew, or whose hosts occur on sugar-rich substrates, such as fruits or nectar-bearing plant structures. For these parasitoids, the task of locating hosts and carbohydrates is linked. Parasitoids from this group may show few specific adaptations to the exploitation of additional carbohydrate sources and little or no task differentiation between food foraging and host search. The second group is comprised of those parasitoids whose hosts are not reliably associated

Molecular Insight into Soil Organic Matter Formation

By solvents or heat, respectively (Hayes et al, 1990 Gleixner and Schmidt, 1998). The isotopic content of soluble compounds is determined directly, i.e., alkanes, or after derivatization of polar groups, i.e., phospholipid fatty acids, in a gas chromatograph coupled via a combustion unit to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS) (Hilkert et al, 1999). Alternatively, molecular fragments are produced by heat from non-soluble compounds, like proteins, carbohydrates or lignin and transferred on-line to a GC-C-IRMS system (Gleixner et al, 1999). Under pyrolysis conditions intramolecular water release and intermolecular bond cleavage from specific volatile breakdown products, e.g., from carbohydrates derivatives of furane and pyrane and from lignin derivatives of phenol, are analyzed for their isotopic content. In combination with vegetation change experiments, the label of individual compounds can be evaluated (i.e., squares in Fig. 3.8 are already completely labeled with the...

Nonsubstitutable and substitutable resources

Most organisms actually consume more than one kind of resource. This raises the question whether the extent of the limitation by one resource is affected by the availability of other resources. The critical question is whether resources can be substituted for one another. In this regard there are important differences between animals and autotrophic organisms. The nutrition of an animal has a package character that is, a piece of food (a prey, a plant as food) serves both as an energy source and as a source of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, essential elements, etc. Such packages can generally be substituted by others, even if the substitute package has a less favorable composition or is more difficult to capture. A cat that does not catch mice can also be fed canned cat food. It is possible, however, that even animals are not limited by only the total amount of food, but rather by individual components (e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, in extreme cases even...

Drosophila establishing the framework of insect immunity

Once the framework of innate immunity was established in both vertebrates and insects, it allowed classification of genes and families into broad functional categories recognition, modulation, signal transduction, and effector components (Table 6.1). Recognition of foreign molecular features is the first step towards activating innate immune responses. Recognition is usually achieved through the binding of specialized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the immune system to cognate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as peptidoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, carbohydrates, and P-1,3-glucans (Lemaitre and Hoffmann, 2007). This recognition and binding to foreign bodies can result in direct and indirect outcomes, such as opsonization, phagocytosis, encapsulation, melanization, and lysis. These outcomes represent a coordinated immune system response to combat a recognized threat. The Toll, Imd, and Janus kinase signal transduction and activators of transcription (JAK...

Efficiency Yield and Stability

Most of the solar energy impinging on green plants dissipates as heat. The rest drives the photosynthetic process, converting light energy to chemical energy in organic molecules. The photosynthetic organisms usually use most of the sugars and carbohydrates that they produce for growth, reproduction, and repair.

Ascendency Applications

Ascendency has also been applied to establish ecosystem responses to eutrophication and other anthropogenic system alterations of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and carbon biopolymers in various parts of the globe. Whereas ascendency is, in general, believed to rise with eutrophication due to an increase in TST, this is not always the case. Depending on the extent and frequency of the eutrophication event, it might disturb the system to an extent where ascendency reflects a decrease in ecosystem stability through a decrease in AMI and TST. Another case of system perturbation was described for pesticide-perturbed microcosms, using an index called 'scope for change in ascendency' (SfCA). SfCA is an analogy to

Plants In The Carbon Cycle

Plants contain carbohydrates in the form of sugar, starch and cellulose. These are the most important nutritional and accumulative substances in plant organisms. Sugar is formed in the green parts of the plant by carbon dioxide CO2 from airand water H2O subjected to sunlight.

Ecosystem Components and Properties

Solar energy is transformed into chemical energy by primary producers via photosynthesis, the process of converting inorganic carbon (CO2) from the air into organic carbon (C6H12O2) in the form of carbohydrates. Gross primary production is the energy or carbon fixed via photosynthesis over a specific period of time, while net primary production is the energy or carbon fixed in

Stages in the breakdown and decay of CPOM

As much as 25 of the initial dry mass of freshly abscised leaves is lost due to leaching in the first 24 h. Constituents lost during leaching are primarily soluble carbohydrates and polyphenols (Suberkropp et al. 1976). Leaves of different plants show species-specific leaching rates alder (Alnus rugosa) lost only about 4 of dry mass over several days whereas elm (Ulnus americana) lost 16 in an early study by Kaushik and Hynes (1971). Release of DOC

The Regulation of Acclimation

And the concentration of carbohydrates, including glucose and trehalose-6-phosphate (Walters 2005), but a definitive answer about their precise role is still lacking. Systemic signals play a role in the effect of the light environment of mature leaves on the acclimation of young, growing leaves, irrespective of their own light environment (Yano & Terashima 2001).

Microbes As Direct Food Sources

Regardless of the strategy, it is generally agreed that for most detritivores microorganisms are the major, if not sole source of proteinaceous food, and are assimilated with high efficiency, 90 or more in the case of bacteria (White, 1985,1993 Bignell, 1989 Plante et al., 1990). On a dry weight basis, fungi are 2-8 nitrogen, yeasts are 7.5-8.5 , and bacteria are 11.5-12.5 (Table 5.1). These levels are comparable to arthropod tissue and may exceed cockroach tissue (about 9.5 in C. punctulatus adults) (Nalepa and Mullins, 1992). In addition to being rich sources of nitrogen, microbes contain high levels of macronutrients such as lipids and carbohydrates, and critical micronutrients, such as unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins (Martin and Kukor, 1984). Even if the ingested biomass is small, the nutrient value may be highly significant (Seastedt, 1984 Ullrich et al., 1992). Irmler and Furch (1979), for example, pointed out that a litter-feeding cockroach in Amazonia would need...

Industrial Fermentation

As indicated above, natural fermentation is widely diffuse in several ecological niches where the conditions of anae-robiosis, high concentrations of carbohydrates (the Crabtree effect), or the lack of carbohydrates (fermentation of amino acids) determine the predominant fermenting organisms. All fermentative processes that are today devoted to food and animal feed transformation and preservation have ancient origins and have been traditionally carried out by the microorganisms naturally present in the substrates. The advent of industrialization, the construction of appropriate equipment, and the development of microbiology as an applied science have led the development of the fermentation industry, transforming a great number of the natural fermentation processes into industrial-scale fermentation. These transformations have been applied to wine, beer, distilled beverages and bread industries where alcoholic fermentation is mainly involved, and to the dairy and meat transformation...

Amino Acid Fermentation

In the absence of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate, Clostridium, Fusobaterium, and a few other anaerobes can ferment amino acids. This fermentation occurs during anaerobic and putrefaction processes. The most important mechanism for amino acid degradation is Stickland fermentation during Stickland fermentation of two amino acids, one serves as the electron donor while the other serves as the acceptor. All amino acids are classified into electron acceptors or donors on the basis of Stickland fermentation, and only tryptophan and tyrosine can behave both as an acceptor and a donor. In addition to decarboxylation of various amino acids by this mechanism, the subsequent reactions yield a variety of products that can have unpleasant odors. In the absence of fermentable carbohydrates and in rich protein substrates, a large number of Clostridium species -such as C. botulinum, C. tetani, and C. perfringens - can generate ATP from amino acid fermentation. The ATP yield...

Dissolved Organic Matter

From 10 to 25 of DOM consists of identifiable molecules of known structure carbohydrates and fatty, amino, and hydroxy acids. The remainder (50-75 , up to 90 in colored waters) can be placed in general categories such as humic and fulvic acids, and hydrophilic acids. Humic acids separate from fulvic acids by precipitating at a pH 2 while fulvic acids remain in solution. Fulvic acids are also smaller than humic acids, which often form colloidal aggregates of high molecular weight (HMW) and may be associated with clays or oxides of iron and aluminum. Fulvic acids generally are the majority of humic substances (Thurman 1985). In the Amazon, for example, fulvic acids were approximately 50 and humic acids 10 of riverine DOC (Ertel et al. 1986).

Fungal pathogens and death

Considerable importance in determining whether it will or will not become infected. Water stress, caused both by dry soils and waterlogging, has been shown to influence infection by honey fungus of susceptible woody species. Popoola and Fox (2003) used isolates of Armillaria mellea and A. gallica to infect healthy blackcurrant, strawberry, Lawson cypress and privet. Previous to this the host plants had been watered normally, subjected to drought or waterlogged for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period chemical analysis of the roots showed that levels of protein, lipids and carbohydrates were higher in both groups of stressed plants than they were in those watered normally. The increased nutrient levels found in both the droughted and waterlogged plants were sufficient to enhance the virulence of both A. mellea and A. gallica.

Liquidsolids Separation

Among the environmental conditions causing sludge bulking are a high concentration of carbohydrates in the wastewater or a nutrient or oxygen deficiency in the system. These conditions can be rectified if they are quickly identified. Unfortunately, sludge bulking and contributing factors are not always easily identifiable, and difficult liquid-solids separation develops periodically. During these critical periods, the liquid-solids separation device must effectively separate bulking material from the wastewater and allow the solids to recycle back to the contactor. For gravity settling, a hydraulic separation rate of 250 to 500 gal per day per sq ft should be used. At a low hydraulic overflow rate, critical periods of sludge bulking can usually be handled without loss of gross solids into the effluent.

Process Microbiology

In acid fermentation, the extracellular enzymes of a group of heterogenous and anaerobic bacteria hydrolyze complex organic waste components (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) to yield small soluble products. These simple, soluble compounds (e.g., triglycerides, fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars) are further subjected, by the bacteria, to fermentation, -oxidations, and other metabolic processes that lead to the formation of simple organic compounds, mainly short-chain (volatile) acids (e.g., acetic CH3COOHj, propionic CH3CH2COOHj, butyric CH3-CH2-CH2-COOHj) and alcohols. In the acid fermentation stage, no COD or BOD reduction is realized since this stage merely converts complex organic molecules to short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, and new bacterial cells, which exert an oxygen demand.

Oxidation Of Reduced C

Also includes oxidation of N- or S-containing organic molecules as a source of energy. Oxidation of l-glutamic acid is one example. Such oxidations to yield energy are responsible for mineralization reactions that release plant nutrients such as NH+ (Table 9.13). In Table 9.12, oxidation of 1 mol of C as CH2O generates 4e-, whereas in Table 9.13, oxidation of 1 mol of C as l-glutamic acid generates only 3.4e-. Consequently the amount of ATP synthesized from the oxidation of 1 mol of C from l-glutamate would be expected to be less than during the oxidation of 1 mol of C from glucose. Such N-containing energy sources are less energetically favorable than pure carbohydrates or lipids. In turn amino acids are best reserved for protein biosynthesis. The search for energy at the expense of N-containing organic molecules (Eq. 21 ) in the absence of more energetically favorable alternatives is the basis for much of the N supply to crops from decomposition of humus, plant residues, and...

Structures and Mechanisms of Cloning

For all clonal structures the production of independent plants may be a secondary function, since all have functions other than reproduction. As outlined by Grace (1993), the adaptive functions of cloning structures include photosynthesis, resource acquisition from sediments, anchorage, carbohydrate storage, protection, and perennation (overwintering). Tap roots, which may become detached and generate new plants, are involved in carbohydrate storage and perennation. Rhizomes may be particularly important for anchorage in tidal zones and other areas of considerable water flow or high winds. They can also take up nutrients from the soil, store carbohydrates, and function as perennating structures. Shoots that detach and float in the water column are photosynthetic as are runners sent out along the soil surface. Subterranean storage structures like bulbs, tubers, corms, and rhizomes afford the plant protection from temperature extremes (freezing and fire), drying, mechanical damage...

Nitrogen And Carbon Cycling By Litter Saprotrophs

Mature rings typically consisted of a 30-40 cm wide band with the mycelial front extending into fresh litter and the inner edge leaving bleached litter behind (Chapter 1). In contrast, Frankland et al. (1995) described a 'sit-and-wait' strategy, where Mycena galopus in a coniferous forest formed sporocarps at the same position year after year, presumably reflecting the location of the mycelium. In such cases, it appears that the fungi forage for resources mostly vertically, extending out from more decayed litter below into freshly fallen litter deposited on top. Both examples illustrate the polar growth of litter-degrading mycelia, and how they constantly advance into new resource-units from older, depleted ones. The dynamics of resource colonisation by saprotrophic mycelia has been thoroughly investigated in wood-decomposing fungi. A wide range of studies describe how saprotrophic basidiomycetes in heterogeneous environments optimise resource utilisation and...

Nitrogen Export During Late Saprotrophic Decomposition Stages

Traditional nitrogen cycling theory is based around the mineralisation of organic nitrogen and release of ammonium during decomposition. Release of inorganic nitrogen occurs when microorganisms experience carbohydrate deficiency and therefore utilise organic, nitrogen-containing compounds as a source of energy, leaving ammonium as a by-product (Myrold, 1998). This concept was developed for unicellular microorganisms, which are restricted to resources in their immediate vicinity and may therefore easily experience carbon deficiency. Filamentous fungi, on the other hand, may circulate resources throughout their entire mycelia, and mycelium experiencing local carbon deficiency may be supported from more or less distant resources (Chapter 3). In coniferous forest ecosystems, litter input is often more continuous than in other ecosystems, and needles may constitute a high-quality source of cellulose for at least 2 years. Thus, carbon limitation and subsequent nitrogen mineralisation is...

Lignin Decomposition by Saprotrophs

As cellulose decomposition proceeds, the concentration of the more recalcitrant lignin increases (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982). At later stages of decomposition, decay correlate well with lignin concentration in the litter (McClaugherty and Berg, 1987). Polyphenolic compounds, either tannins present in the fresh litter or products of lignin decomposition, form recalcitrant complexes with nitrogen-containing compounds, such as proteins and chitin (Kelley and Stevenson, 1995). As a result, nitrogen progressively becomes incorporated into the highly recalcitrant, polyphenolic litter fraction during decomposition (Berg, 1988). In highly decomposed coniferous forest humus, more than half of the nitrogen was found in the acid insoluble (i.e. polyphenolic) fraction (Johnsson et al., 1999). Bas-idiomycetes have been highlighted as the main organisms responsible for lignin degradation, using elaborate oxidative enzyme systems (Rayner and Boddy, 1988 Chapter 2). There are, however, large energy...

Very Late Decomposition Stages Humus and Mycorrhizal Fungi

The shift in community composition from saprotrophic taxa at initial stages of litter decomposition to mycorrhizal taxa at later stages coincides with a simultaneous shift in the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of the litter (Figure 2 Lindahl et al., 2007). During the saprotrophic phase, C N ratios decreased with time, presumably due to consumption of litter carbon by fungal respiration, and retention of nitrogen in fungal biomass. In the mycorrhizal phase, C N ratios increased slightly with time, presumably due to mobilisation and subsequent translocation of organic nitrogen to the plant roots in combination with respiration of host-derived carbohydrates rather than litter carbohydrates.

Sugar Induced Repression of Genes Encoding Calvin Cycle Enzymes

The feedback mechanism outlined in Sect. 4.2 operates in the short term, adjusting the activity of the existing photosynthetic apparatus to the capacity of export and sink activity, but mechanisms at the level of gene transcription play a more important role in the long term. They modify photosynthetic capacity and can override regulation by light, tissue type, and developmental stage (Smeekens & Rook 1998). Leaves of Triticum aestivum (wheat) fed with 1 glucose have a lower photosynthetic capacity as well as lower levels of mRNA coding for several Calvin-cycle enzymes, including the small subunit of Rubisco (Jones et al. 1996). Regulation of photo-synthetic gene expression by carbohydrates plays an important role in the control of the activity of the ''source'' (leaves) by the demand in the ''sink'' (e.g., fruits) (Paul & Foyer 2001). Sensing of carbohydrate levels is mediated by a specific hexokinase, which is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexose while hydro-lyzing ATP (Smeekens...

Ecological stoichiometry and the chemical composition of decomposers detritivores and their resources

There is a great contrast between the chemical composition of dead plant tissue and that of the tissues of the heterotrophic organisms that consume and decompose it. While the major components of plant tissues, particularly cell walls, are structural polysaccharides, these are only of minor significance in the bodies of microorganisms and detritivores. However, being harder to digest than storage carbohydrates and protein, the structural chemicals still form a significant component of detritivore feces. Detritivore feces and plant tissue have much in common chemically, but the protein and lipid contents of detritivores and decomposers are significantly higher than those of plants and feces.

Forests as Inputs Effects of Acorns on White Tailed Deer

Diets rich in oak mast provide deer with more-easily digested and metabolized energy, fat, and soluble carbohydrates than do diets that are not dominated by acorns (Harlow et al. 1975, Pekins and Mautz 1987, 1988), but acorns are relatively low in crude protein (Kirkpatrick et al. 1969, Wentworth et al. 1990, and Chapter 11). Fawn growth in autumn is more dependent on available energy than on protein, however (Verme and Ozoga 1980). Likewise, dietary energy level rather than protein affects ovulation rates, fawning rates, and fat deposition in older females (Verme 1969, Warren and Kirkpatrick 1982).

Exploitation of Microalgal Products

Microalgal biomass has been used as food and feed supplements due to its potential to enhance the nutritional value of conventional food and to act as a probiotic agent. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, PUFAs, raw fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc. Today, micro-algal biomass, mostly of Chlorella and Spirulina, is marketed as health food and as a protein source in the form of tablets, capsules, and liquids. The annual micro-algal market is of thousands of tons. Microalgal biomass is incorporated into pasta, snacks, drinks, and beverages as a nutritious supplement or colorant. Plant proteins are a source of essential amino acids that humans and animals cannot biosynthesize (e.g., methionine, lysine, and tryptophan).

The Eukaryote Cells Emerge

The gradual accumulation of changes resulting from mutations and sexual recombinations and a few other mechanisms over many generations produce new species. The cells are surrounded with a great diversity of outer coverings of enormous complexity and made of a wide variety of substances, mostly proteins, carbohydrates, polymers of combinations of both. Finally, it should be mentioned that eukaryotes typically is 10 times larger in diameter or 1000 times larger in volume compared with prokaryotes. Had the transformation from prokaryotes to eukaryotes not taken place, the living world of today would still have been only bacteria.

Photosynthetic yield to the planktic food web

The species structure of the bacterioplank-ton is highly varied and, collectively, includes species capable of oxidising substrates as varied as carbohydrates, various hydrocarbons, proteins and lipids (Perry, 2002). Presumably, the numbers of the particular types fluctuate in response to substrate supply and to grazing distinct species 'successions', in time and in space, have been demonstrated as the community composition responds to the dissipation of substrate pulses moving through linear mainstem reservoirs (see

Background nutritional physiology

Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are the primary nutrient classes and the fat body is the main site of nutrient storage and metabolism for all insects. The fat body stores carbohydrates as glycogen and lipids as tryglycerides (Clements 1992, Candy et al. 1997). The fat body also synthesizes many key molecules including the lipoprotein vitellogenin, the primary constituent of yolk, and trehalose, which is a key sugar in hemolymph. Insect hemolymph is another site of nutrient storage and usually contains high levels of free amino acids, storage proteins, and sugars required for maintenance, metamorphosis, and reproduction. Regulation of nutrient homeostasis (i.e. nutrient sensing) in insects, as in vertebrates, occurs primarily through the insulin and the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways (Britton et al. 2002, Scott et al. 2004). Insulin signaling is a hormone-based system that regulates metabolism and organismal growth while the TOR pathway responds to nutrient levels to regulate...

Symbiosis with plant roots

In light of the trophic association between the soil mycelium of fungal species and root cells, it is necessary to consider briefly the nature of this nutrient exchange. The mycelia feed on SOM and participate in its digestion, as well as forming mycorrhizal associations with plant root cells. Hyphae within a mycelium are often connected to several plants. Hyphae in one region are able to translocate nutrients through the mycelium to different hyphae. The exchange of elements at the mycorrhizal cell-cell contact is generally agreed to consist of a net flow of C into hyphae, and a net flow of P, N, S, Ca, Zn and other minerals into the root cells (Smith and Read, 1997, Chapter 14). The flow of various elements is described from isotope tracer studies that have shown hyphal uptake from the soil solution by osmotrophy of 32P, 15N, 35S, 45Ca and 65Zn. The minerals are obtained in their ionic form by hyphae through active transport. They are translocated through the...

Parasitoid nutrient dynamics

By adults provides additional protein and carbohydrates but little or none of these nutrients are converted to lipid suggesting an absence of lipogenesis during the adult stage of E. vuilleti (Giron & Casas 2003). Lipid ingested by host feeding is also inadequate to replace capital lipid reserves from the larval stage (Giron et al. 2002, Casas et al. 2005). In contrast, the endoparasitic koinobiont Venturia canescens is weakly synovigenic, produces small eggs with little yolk, and does not host feed. This species emerges with limited capital reserves, is stored mainly as lipids, and possesses almost no reserves stored in eggs themselves (Casas et al. 2003). Carbohydrate levels increase rapidly in V. canescens from feeding on nectar and or honeydew, yet, similar to E. vuilleti, lipid reserves do not (Casas et al. 2003). Strong synovigeny has previously been associated with weak capital reserves compared to weak synovigeny or pro-ovigeny (Jervis et al. 2001), yet the preceding data...

Models of Succession

A third model proposed by Connell and Slatyer (1977) to explain at least some successional transitions is the antithesis of facilitation. According to this inhibition model, the initial colonists preempt use of resources and exclude, suppress, or inhibit subsequent colonists for as long as these initial colonists persist. Succession can proceed only as individuals are damaged or killed and thereby release resources (including growing space) for other species. Examples of inhibition are successional stages dominated by allelopathic species, such as shrubs that increase soil salinity or acidity by species that preempt space, such as many perennial sodforming grasses whose network of rhizomes restrict establishment by other plants by species whose life spans coincide with the average interval between disturbances and by species that create a positive feedback between disturbance and regeneration, such as eucalypts, Eucalyptus spp. (e.g., Shugart et al. 1981). In decomposing wood, the...

What Are the Biosphere Resources Exploited by Microorganisms

The vast diversity and quantities of inorganic (e.g., S0, NH 3, H2, CO2, and CH4) and organic (e.g., carbohydrates, fats, proteins, lipids, and hydrocarbons) materials present on Earth's surface are disseminated among a matching diversity of habitats whose physical and chemical characteristics span wide ranges of pH, temperature, salinity, redox potential, water potential, oxygen tension, etc. The wide distribution of resources across different environments was likely the source of selective pressure during the evolutionary diversification of microorganisms. The end product of this evolution is a microbial world capable

Photosynthesis Light Energy

A key aspect of this energy-trapping process lies in its timescale. Excited bacteriochlorophyll, for example, has a life time of about 10 10 s and would be difficult to use to drive the majority of biochemical processes. In contrast, reduced organic molecules like fats, lipids, and carbohydrates can serve as intracellular reserve materials for days, months, or years and then be drawn upon as necessary to create the ATP pool that are directly fuels for anabolic (biosynthetic) cellular reactions.

Conclusions the costs of mutualism

While mutualistic interactions have become accepted as comparable in importance to ecosystems as competition and predator-prey relationships, the view that mutualism represents cooperation between species has been challenged. Bronstein (2001) has stressed that mutualisms involve costs for each species, as well as benefits. Costs of mutualism are only now being tabulated, and there is little consistency in how data are gathered. Bronstein (2001) cites the following examples (i) 20 of the total carbon budget of forest trees may be consumed supporting mycorrhizae (Johnson et at. 1997) (ii) 3 of the energy budget of many plants is devoted to providing floral nectar for pollinators (Harder and Barrett 1992) (iii) extrafloral nectar costs about 1 of the energy budget of the plants involved (O'Dowd 1979, 1980). In the obligatory interaction between figs and their wasp pollinators, Bronstein (2001) estimated that 53 of ovaries of Ficus aurea are lost to the wasps, while yuccas (Yucca spp.)...

Focus on acetogenesis A process that competes with methanogenesis in anaerobic habitats

The study of acetogenesis is important because of the role that acetogens play in carbon cycling in many anaerobic communities. Acetate is a trophically important metabolite for microbial communities in many ecosystems. The flux of organic carbon into the acetate pool and its metabolic turnover can be enormous in some natural habitats. Approximately 1013 kg of acetate are formed and metabolized annually in anaerobic habitats globally. Of this amount, 10 is derived from CO2 fixation through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and 1.22 x 1012 kg of acetate per year is estimated to be produced microbiologically in the hindgut of termites alone. This mass of acetate greatly exceeds the amount of methane produced annually through microbial reduction of CO2. Acetogenesis also occurs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Reports have estimated that 90 of the carbohydrates ingested by the human population are processed anaerobically through the homoacetate fermentation biochemical pathway....

The power of a complete nutrient budget

To address these challenges, we conclude that quantified energy and nutrient budgets for both parasitoids and hosts are the only way to make sense of the myriad of evolutionary scenarios that can arise. The key advantage to this approach is that it enables us to assess the relative benefits and costs of different nutrient acquisition and allocation strategies. Building complete budgets is not an easy task but it is doable, even in small parasitoids. This is illustrated by the comprehensive total energy budget recently developed for the idiobiont Eupelmus vulleti that we discussed earlier in this chapter (Casas et al. 2005, see above). For this analysis, the sugar, glycogen, protein, and lipid reserves of single females at birth and death were quantified, as was daily maintenance. Each host feeding and oviposition event, along with the nutrient amounts acquired and invested in eggs, was recorded. The time of death was also used to compare model predictions in the presence and absence...

Ecosystem Structure

Autotrophs are those organisms capable of fixing (acquiring and storing) inorganic resources in organic molecules. Photosynthetic plants, responsible for fixation of abiotic carbon into carbohydrates, are the sources of organic molecules. This chemical synthesis is powered by solar energy. Free-living and symbiotic N-fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria are an important means of converting inorganic N2 into ammonia, the source of most nitrogen available to plants. Other chemoau-totrophic bacteria oxidize ammonia into nitrite or nitrate (the form of nitrogen available to most green plants) or oxidize inorganic sulfur into organic compounds. Production of autotrophic tissues must be sufficient to compensate for amounts consumed by heterotrophs.

Primary Productivity

Primary productivity is the rate of conversion of solar energy into plant matter. The total rate of solar energy conversion into carbohydrates (total photosynthesis) is gross primary productivity (GPP). However, a portion of GPP must be expended by the plant through metabolic processes necessary for maintenance, growth, and reproduction and is lost as heat through respiration. The net rate at which energy is stored as plant matter is net primary productivity. The energy stored in net primary production (NPP) becomes available to heterotrophs. Usually, the NPP that is consumed by herbivores on an annual basis is low, an observation that prompted Hairston et al. (1960) to conclude that herbivores are not resource limited and must be controlled by predators. However, early studies of energy content of plant material involved measurement of change in enthalpy (heat of combustion) rather than free energy (Wiegert 1968). We now know that the energy initially stored as carbohydrates is...

Reticulate evolution and seed crops pea

Ofuya and Akhidue (2005) reviewed information concerning the production and nutritional value of the legume species known as pulses this terminology refers to all of the species of legumes grown for the harvest of their dried seeds. In particular, the data reviewed by Ofuya and Akhidue (2005) showed the former Soviet Union to be the major producer (7,800 metric tonnes annually) of the common pea, Pisum sativum. This finding, though outdated in terms of present-day countries, reflects the ongoing, significant value of this crop as a food source from Europe to Eastern Asia. Indeed, the nutritional value of P. sativum is reflected in its ranking as one of the top pulses in terms of total carbohydrates and dietary fiber content (Ofuya and Akhidue 2005). Furthermore, once again using the US agricultural system as an indicator of crop value, the 2006 P. sativum harvest netted more than US 80 million (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2007a). Though small compared to receipts from...

Abiotic and Biotic Pools

Resources from abiotic pools are not available to all organisms but must be transformed (fixed) into biologically useful compounds by autotrophic organisms. Photosynthetic plants acquire water and atmospheric or dissolved carbon dioxide to synthesize carbohydrates, which then are stored in biomass. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria acquire atmospheric or dissolved N2 and convert it into ammonia, which they and some plants can incorporate directly into amino acids and nucleic acids. Nitrifying bacteria oxidize ammonia into nitrite and nitrate, the form of nitrogen available to most plants. These autotrophs also acquire other essential nutrients in dissolved form. The living and dead biomass of these organisms represents the pool of energy and nutrients available to heterotrophs.

Phenolics in Ecosystem Processes

Humic substances are especially abundant in the humus-rich soils (humus, humic, human a common etiology, stemming from ''of the Earth''). Humic and fulvic acids have a net negative charge and readily complex metal ions. Humics become less soluble when complexed with common divalent cations that nullify the humic's net negative charge. The toxicities of metals such as Cu, Zn, and Cd are reduced dramatically by even low (

Plant Biomass Composition

Dry matter consists mainly of carbohydrates, lignins, oils fats, organic acids, and proteins, and primarily originates from sugars produced via the photosynthetic process. Dry matter is obtained once the water is extracted from the fresh organs. As extremes, dry matter may be 95 of the fresh one for seeds and 3.5 for a cucumber fruit, but plant dry matter content ratio is generally about 15 of the fresh weight and in this article it is assumed that the ratio of dry weight to fresh weight remains constant.

Physiological Biochemical and Anatomical Aspects

Four phases in the diurnal pattern of CAM are discerned (Fig. 46). Phase I, the carboxylation phase, starts at the beginning of the night. Toward the end of the night, the rate of carboxylation declines and the malic acid concentration reaches its maximum. The stomatal conductance and the CO2 fixation change more or less in parallel. During phase I, carbohydrates are broken down. Phase II, at the beginning of the day, is characterized by a high rate of CO2 fixation, generally coinciding with an increased stomatal conductance. CO2 fixation by PEP carboxylase and malic acid formation coincide with the fixation of CO2 by Rubisco. Gradually, fixation by PEP carboxylase is taken over by fixation by Rubisco. In the last part of phase II, C3 photosynthesis predominates, using exogenous CO2 as the substrate. Phase II typically occurs

A classic set of data reconsidered

As described in the Chapter 10, the British ecologist Charles Elton proposed that the data on pelt returns of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) by the Hudson's Bay Company provided support for the theory that periodical oscillations in populations are inherent in predator-prey interactions as predicted by the Lotka-Volterra equations. Many factors have been proposed to explain the hare-lynx cycles, including forest fires (Fox 1978). However, Bryant and Kuropat (1980) and Bryant et al. (1983) proposed that the hare cycle was the result of induction of chemical defenses in the Lare's primary winter foods, willow (Salix spp.), alder (Alnus spp.), and birch (Betula spp.). The chemical pinosylvin methyl ether, a toxic phenolic, deters feeding by snowshoe hares on alder. The chemical is present in the foliar buds and catkins, but not in the internodes. The hares will eat the internodes, but they are higher in fiber and lower in nutrients and carbohydrates as...

Ecology of Marine and Freshwater Basidiomycetes

Terrestrial counterparts and colonize a wide range of substrata sea-grasses, feathers, wood associated with sand, free floating in the sea, but most occur on mangrove wood or timbers submerged in the sea (boats, piling, sea defences), and leaves and twigs in streams and rivers. They are an ecological group and taxonomically diverse (Agariomycotina, Uredinomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina). Most are able to utilize simple carbohydrates, while filamentous species can decompose cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Aquatic basidiomycetes are well adapted to their habitats, with reduced basidiomata. Marine species are known only as teleomorphs with basidio-spores generally released passively. Freshwater basidiomycetes are primarily known by their anamorphs on decaying leaves, with conidia that are much branched, while their teleomorphs occur on land and on woody substrata.

Successional tolerance See succession

Sugar See carbohydrates. sulfur bacteria Filamentous autotrophic chemosynthetic bacteria that derive energy by oxidizing sulfides to elemental sulfur and build up carbohydrates from carbon dioxide. They use sulfides instead of water as a source of electrons in photosynthesis, releasing sulfur instead of oxygen. An example is Beggiatoa. They are found mainly in sulfur-rich muds and springs, including hydrothermal vents. A few archaea, e.g. Sulfolobus, can oxidize elemental sulfur. As well as sulfides, some bacteria oxidize thiosulfates, polythionates, and sulfites. Sulfur bacteria play an important role in the cycling of sulfur in the ecosystem.

Plant and Animal Adaptations

By vertebrate dispersers, in particular, has selected for fruit traits that enhance their detectability these fruits, thus, tend to have a conspicuous coloration, distinctive odor, or a combination of both. A common pattern found both in the tropics and in the temperate zones is that bird-dispersed plants usually have red- or black-colored fruits. In some species, a bicolored fruit advertisement, contrasting the ripe fruits with the surrounding foliage, is what presumably gives visual conspicuousness (what has been termed the 'foliar flag' hypothesis) (Figure 4). Also, some ripe fruits reflect ultraviolet (UV) light which enhances the detectability by birds, as their color vision extends to the near-UV. The fruits dispersed by vertebrates also tend to have a pulp rich in water and carbohydrates while being poor in protein and lipids however, there is much interspecific variability in nutrient composition, and fruit pulp quality does not show to be a trait reflecting plants'...

Future work 7111 Empirical studies

Resources and to allow us to test the validity of the chosen grouping compartmentalization of biochemical resources, in our synovigenic model (i.e. sugars and glycogen into MRs, and proteins and lipids into EPRs). We have assumed the carbohydrate requirement of egg manufacture to be so small as to be ignored for modeling purposes. However, Giron et al. (2004) have shown the eggs of the host-feeding, yolk-rich egg-producing wasp E. vuilleti to contain an amount of carbohydrate equivalent to that of either protein or lipid. The finding that host-feeding decreases longevity in Trichogramma turkestanica similarly points to a high carbohydrate requirement of egg manufacture (Ferracini et al. 2006). Also, carbohydrates may be involved in the de novo synthesis of non-essential amino acids contained in yolk (Section 7.3). Thus, nutrient tracking studies ought perhaps to focus, at least to begin with, on those non-host-feeding parasitoid species that produce anhydropic eggs.

Table 11165 Summary Of Factors That May Interfere With Solidification Processes

Sodium arsenate, borates, phosphates, iodates, sulfides, and carbohydrates Sulfates Presence of coal or lignite Sodium borate, calcium sulfate, potassium dichromate, and carbohydrates Nonpolar organics (oil, grease, aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs) Polar organics (alcohols, phenols, organic acids, glycols) Solid organics (plastics, tars,

Mutualisms involving gut inhabitants

Foregut Fermentation Rabbits

Carbohydrates contained in host mucus and sloughed epithelial cells. SCFAs are often a major source of energy for the host for example, they provide more than 60 of the maintenance energy requirements for cattle and 29-79 of those for sheep (Stevens & Hume, 1998). The microbes also convert nitrogenous compounds (amino acids that escape absorption in the midgut, urea that would otherwise be excreted by the host, mucus and sloughed cells) into ammonia and microbial protein, conserving nitrogen and water and they synthesize B vitamins. The microbial protein is useful to the host if it can be digested - in the intestine by foregut fermenters and following coprophagy in hindgut fermenters - but ammonia is usually not useful and may even be toxic to the host.

Box 76 Colonial insects and wood decomposition

Although insects are important, microbes are by far the most important biological agents responsible for wood decomposition. Of these, fungal rot, particularly by basiodomycetes, is responsible for the disappearance of most wood at moisture levels above 20 . Bacteria can break down woody cell walls but tend to be localized in their effect. They dominate in waterlogged wood over fungi, which is the main reason why submerged wood decomposes so slowly. As with insects, fungal decomposers go through a succession of types. The first invaders of freshly dead wood are normally the moulds and staining fungi which live on the easily digested cell contents (the stain fungi, mostly Ascomycetes, have pigmented hyphae which stain the wood, lowering its commercial value which is why foresters try to process cut wood as soon as possible). These early invaders fail to affect the integrity of the wood itself because they cannot digest structural carbohydrates or lignin, and in fact may slow subsequent...

Decomposers bacteria and fungi

Hyphomyc Tes

Changes may occur at the same time enzymes in the dead tissue may start to autolyze it and break down the carbohydrates and proteins into simpler, soluble forms. The dead material may also become leached by rainfall or, in an aquatic environment, may lose minerals and soluble organic compounds as they are washed out in solution. The changing nature of a resource during its decomposition is illustrated in Figure 11.2a for beech leaf litter on the floor of a cool temperate deciduous forest in Japan. Polyphenols and soluble carbohydrates quickly disappeared, but the resistant structural holocellulose and lignin decomposed much more slowly. The fungi responsible for leaf decomposition follow a succession that is associated with the changing nature of the resource. The frequency of occurrence of early species, such as Arthrinium sp. (Figure 11.2b), was correlated with declines in holocellulose and soluble carbohydrate concentrations Osono and Takeda (2001) suggest that they

Dispersal of seeds and pollen

Types Dispersal Seeds And Fruits

Most animal-pollinated flowers offer nectar, pollen or both as a reward to their visitors. Floral nectar seems to have no value to the plant other than as an attractant to animals and it has a cost to the plant, because the nectar carbohydrates might have been used in growth or some other activity.

Resources and Products in Industrial Systems

One could say that humans in a modern consumer society have developed extended metabolic needs, where consumer goods and services play a role similar to the need for proteins and carbohydrates in nature. To have toast in the morning requires not only bread but also a toaster and thus electric power as well. This concept of humans having extended needs is hardly new. Rousseau saw industrialization as creating a set of artificial (as opposed to natural) needs, and Marx made the distinction between human and inhuman needs. The material and energy requirements of the modern industrial system serve the extended needs of human consumers. The concept of distinct industrial metabolisms, reflecting the material realities of specific societies, and attempts to quantify them, is an active research area in industrial ecology.

Elemental Composition of Biomolecules

Variation in elemental composition among organisms can be driven by stoichiometric differences at many levels of internal organization. As outlined below, major classes of biomolecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, protein, and nucleic acids contain different concentrations of C, N, P, and other major elements such as H, O, and S (Table 2). Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates generally serve as fuel, energy stores, and building materials, although specific carbohydrate-containing molecules also act in cell-cell recognition and information transmission. Sugars and starches are carbohydrates involved in energy transport and storage they have a general chemical formula of (CH2O) . Thus, like storage lipids, carbohydrates with this basic formula contain neither N nor P. However, they contain less C than lipids. For example, glucose contains 40 C and glycogen contains 52 C, while triacylglycerols typically contain more than 70 C. Carbohydrate fuels generally make up only a small...

Metabolism and gas exchange

The fat body is the principal site of synthesis and storage of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and proteins. It is the major location of trehalose and glycogen synthesis, respectively the main haemolymph and storage carbohydrates in insects, the principal site of proline synthesis from alanine and acetyl CoA, and the principal site of lipid synthesis and storage (mostly as di- or triacylgly-cerol) (Friedman 1985). When either flight muscles, or other muscle groups, place a demand on the system for fuel, initially this fuel is provided from stores in the muscles themselves, but shortly thereafter energy-providing macromolecules from the haemolymph and eventually from the fat body must be used. Small peptide hormones produced by the corpora cardiaca are responsible for the control of fuel mobilization, and many members of this adipokinetic (AKH) family of hormones, which are responsible for lipid, carbohydrate and proline mobilization, are now known from insects (Gade 1991 Gade et...

Ecosystems and the Global Energy Balance

Photosynthesis utilizes about 8 W m 2 of solar radiation (Table 3) Since most of the carbohydrates are respired within relatively short time at the same location, most of the energy is released as heat by respiration. Hence, the energy fluxes associated with photosynthesis and

Contrasting Homeostasis in Plants and Animals

Photosynthesis relies on light energy to fix CO2 into organic molecules such as sugars. From these building blocks many other biochemicals can be made. Carbon nutrient stoichiometry (C N or C P ratios) in individual autotroph species can be quite variable. Biochemicals such as carbohydrates and many lipids, which contain only C, H, and O, are made without incorporation of nutrients such as N or P. An autotroph in the light and with adequate access to CO2 can make a plentiful supply of these compounds (starches, oils, organic acids, etc.) without investment of other critical resources.

Water Uptake in Deserts Animals

Desert Rodents

Cells that can withstand osmotic imbalance. Animals living in more mesic environments (including humans) would destroy their red blood cell at such high water content in their blood. Much of the free available water has high salinity, and so it is not a surprise that many desert animals show high salt tolerance, for instance by employing salt-excreting glands. Other animals, mostly the ones that are restricted in their mobility (e.g., mammals, reptiles, and insects), rely on water obtained from their food. Carnivorous and insectivorous animals typically receive enough water from their prey. Herbivores do so as well, as long as the moisture content of the consumed plant material is relatively high ( 15 of fresh weight fresh shoots and leaves, fruits, and berries). The ultimate desert-adapted method however is the extraction of metabolic water. Especially seed-eating (granivorous) animals are able to metabolically oxidize fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Rodents and some groups of desert...

Organismal and Molecular Stoichiometry

Organisms consist mainly ofmacromolecules, but there are also monomeric precursors to the macromolecules, a multitude of other small organic metabolites, and inorganic compounds. The organic matter contains the elements hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) in various proportions depending on the type of molecule. The macromolecules have functions as structural components of the cells (e.g., cellulose, phospholipids, and some proteins), metabolically active substances (e.g., enzymes and ribosomal RNA), carriers of genetic information (e.g., DNA and messenger RNA), or storage products (e.g., starch and some lipids). In addition to organic compounds, organisms also contain inorganic compounds such as free ions involved in osmoregulation, signal transduction, and other electrochemical reactions, or larger inorganic molecules used for nutrient storage, as structural components of cell walls, or vertebrate and invertebrate supportive tissues....

Commensals in Animals

Whether or not the gut bacteria are considered commensals or mutualists depends on how strictly the definitions are applied. Besides synthesizing vitamins, the bacteria in the human gut, like those in animal rumens or termite guts, break down plant polysaccharides into simple sugars that are utilized by their host. However, human gut bacteria cannot break down the larger and more complex plant polymers such as cellulose, which can be utilized by herbivores with a rumen, such as cattle, or by termites with a diverse gut flora. Complex carbohydrates pass through the human intestine relatively unaltered. Nevertheless, the efficiency of plant polysaccharide breakdown exhibited by human gut microbes is significant.

Entropy and Biology Photosynthesis

To live and reproduce, plants and animals need a continuous flow of energy. The energy of the biosphere which originates in the luminous energy of the Sun, is captured by plants and passes from one living form to another along the food chain. The luminous energy captured by chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, is stored in carbohydrates, molecules rich in energy, by a process called photosynthesis, a term that means 'to make things with light'. This radiant pathway that provides us with great quantities of food, fibers, and energy, all of solar origin, has existed for about 4 billion years, a long time if we think that hominids appeared on the Earth only 3 million years ago and that known history covers only 10 000 years. The ancestors of today's plants were the blue algae, cyanobacteria, that began to practise photosynthesis, assuming a fundamental role in biological evolution.

Physical and Biological Nature

Organisms use the organic waste products from both carbohydrates and proteinaceous matter as nutrients. The carbon dioxide and water released by the degradation of carbohydrates escape into the air. The ammonia released upon decomposition of protein can be 1) released to the atmosphere, 2) used directly by microorganisms, and 3) converted into nitrite and nitrate. Microbial use of the organic effluent constituents converts a portion of this material into new forms of organic material that, if not removed, are used by different microbial populations. The process is repetitive, and a portion of the organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia at each cycle.

The fibrinogen domain immunolectin FBN gene family

Several different FREPs have been described in various species of invertebrates, with the earliest described being two tachylectins (TL5A and -5B) from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus (Gokudan et al., 1999). Structural and functional characterization of TL5A has revealed its ability to specifically recognize acetyl-group-containing substances, such as GlcNAc, including non-carbohydrates it is capable of agglutinating all types of human erythrocytes and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Gokudan et al., 1999). Therefore, TL5A probably functions as a host defence protein on the front line. Both TL5A and -5B have similar fibrinogen-like structures, but they lack the typically collagen-like domain of ficolins at their N-terminus. Solution of the structure of TL5A within the GlcNAc-TL5A complex at 2.0 A resolution has yielded insights into the lec-tin activity of TL5A and the evolutionary relationship of TL5A to fibrinogen y chains (Kairies et al, 2001). Four aromatic side...

Formation Of Polymer Organic Molecules

The difference mi - is known for detritus organic matter, which is a mixture of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Approximately 18.7 kJ g may be applied for the free energy content of average detritus. Obviously, the value is higher (22-24 kJ g) for detritus originated from birds, as they in average contain more fat. Coal has a free energy content of about 30 kJ g and mineral oil of 42 kJ g. Both coal and mineral oil are a concentrated form of detritus from previous periods of the Earth. c1 is the concentration of the detritus in the considered ecosystem and c1o is the concentration of detritus in the same ecosystem but at thermodynamic equilibrium.

Energy Storage and Expenditure

Agrp Satiety Center

Organisms need energy to sustain their growth and metabolism. Most animals do not forage continuously and must store energy for periods when foraging is not possible. They also need to perform other activities that may not be compatible with foraging. Periods when energy expenditure exceeds energy intake may be short for example, between two meals or overnight. They may also be long, lasting through the winter or throughout extended periods of drought. Energy can be stored in the body as fat, carbohydrates, or sometimes as proteins, or in the environment as hoarded supplies. Animals must actively regulate their energy expenditure. During hibernation, most animals reduce expenditure by lowering their body temperature and thereby their metabolism. Many humans try to decrease their body fat energy stores and get slimmer for example, by reducing food intake. Others instead try to increase their energy stores. Before a race, cross-country and marathon runners may actively deplete the...

Nutritional physiology and ecology

A major theme of this chapter is compensatory feeding. In spite of the enormous variation in the quality of plant food, insects obtain their requirements by means of flexible feeding behaviour and nutrient utilization (Slansky 1993). There are three basic categories of compensatory responses shown by phytophagous insects (Simpson and Simpson 1990) increased consumption in order to obtain more of a limiting nutrient such as nitrogen, dietary selection of a different food to complement a limiting nutrient, or increased digestive efficiency to make the best use of a nutrient. The mechanisms of compensatory feeding have been studied in some detail for the major nutrients, proteins and carbohydrates. To avoid difficulties in interpreting experiments, the use of artificial diets is essential, in spite of their ecological limitations (Simpson and Simpson 1990). Another pervasive theme is nitrogen limitation. Insect herbivores tend to be limited by nitrogen because their C N ratio is so much...

Hostfeeding versus oviposition

On the other hand, there are those species that do engage in host-feeding, in addition to feeding on separate carbohydrate sources. The two food sources usually cover separate requirements. Whereas nectar or honeydew feeding primarily provides carbohydrates to cover the parasitoid's energetic needs, insect haemolymph usually contains relatively low levels of carbohydrates (trehalose and glycogen). Instead, host-feeding constitutes a primary source of protein for physiological processes, such as egg maturation. As a result of the difference in their nutritional composition, the two food sources are only partly interchangeable.

Feeding versus Reproduction

While the broad variation in parasitoid-host associations makes generalizations about parasitoid reproductive strategies difficult, the feeding associations of the adult stages are less diverse. Virtually all parasitoids require carbohydrates as a source of energy, especially for flight. Parasitoids cover their energetic needs by feeding on accessible sugar sources, such as (extra)floral nectar or honeydew. Carbohydrates can have a strong impact on several key fitness parameters. Sugar feeding is indispensable to parasitoid survival, a factor applying to both females and males. In addition, sugar feeding can also raise a female's fecundity, as well as her propensity to search for herbivorous hosts. While parasitoids as a group share a requirement for carbohydrates, hymenopteran parasitoids can be categorized on the basis of two fundamental feeding characteristics, each representing a distinct trade-off between reproduction and feeding.

Positive Interactions

Ecology Important Algae

Without these gut associates or symbionts, the majority of the energy and nutrients contained in plants would be inaccessible to the host species. In turn, the symbionts live in a world bathed with food and constant temperature. Corals and their single-celled algal inhabitants also provide similar benefits for one another. By harboring algae, corals garner a ready source of carbohydrates for growth. Algae receive nitrogenous wastes, an essential fertilizer needed for photosynthesis, and a protective internal environment within the host animal. Obligate positive interactions are not always symbiotic. A good example is the highly specific interaction between the figs and their fig wasp pollinators. There are more than 900 fig species on earth, each dependent on a particular fig wasp pollinator. These relationships

Anatomical and physiological adaptations

Although there is little difference in the fermentation process itself, with volatile fatty acids (VFAs) being the products of polysaccharide breakdown, there are interesting consequences for protein and carbohydrate metabolism among the ruminants and nonruminants. In ruminants, not only cellulose, but also simple carbohydrates and proteins are fermented in the forestomach before the ingesta reach the small intestine. As simple sugars are fermented into VFAs, there are limitations to rapid mobilization of energy through absorption of glucose in the small intestine among many ruminants. The fermentation of protein into ammonia and subsequent recycling of nitrogen through urea and microbial protein synthesis, however, ensure that ruminants do not suffer from amino acid imbalances in the diet. Nonruminants, on the other hand, do not have the same advantage of digestion of microbial proteins. The proteins and simple carbohydrates are already absorbed in the small intestine before the...

Box 74 Mosses and liverworts on rotting wood

Huge Red Backed Salamander

Wood is difficult to digest not just because it is chemically tough but because it is so poor in nutrients. It is composed of 40-55 cellulose, 25-40 hemi-celluloses and 18-35 lignin (conifers having a greater proportion of lignin than hardwoods). Wood is thus high in structural carbohydrates (which require specialized enzymes to break them down) but poor in such elements as nitrogen wood has 0.03-0.1 N (by mass) compared to 1-5 in foliage.

Metabolism and Digestion

Animals are heterotrophs, and as such are unable to synthesize their own organic compounds from inorganic molecules and so rely on other organisms for nutrients. Energy is obtained from nutrients such as carbohydrates, lipids, and sometimes proteins (amino acids are required for protein systhesis but also produce energy when oxidized). Essential vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids are also needed for proper cell functioning and must also be obtained via the diet. Single-celled animals and sponges ingest food particles by phagocytosis. These are chemically and enzymatically reduced within a food vacuole to a few constituent substances (e.g., monosaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids) that are transported into the cytoplasm. Most multicellular animals have a digestive system specialized for extracellular digestion. Food particles enter the digestive system where a series of physical and chemical digestive processes break down food particles into constituent molecules that are...

Mychorrhizal Associations

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic fungi associated with plant roots. They benefit the host plants by increasing the plant's ability to capture water, phosphorus, and other plant nutrients, such as nitrogen and potassium. The mycorrhizae benefit from the association because the plant roots provide carbohydrates. Mycorrhizae are common in upland plants and have been found to be associated with many wetland plants as well (Sondergaard and Laegaard 1977).

Measuring Ecological Efficiency

The caloric content per ash free gram of whole organisms varies between approximately 4500 calories per gram, found in carbohydrates and many whole plants, to 8000-9000 calories per gram found in pure fats. Most animals usually are around 5600, the value for protein mixed with a little fat. Efficiency of particular energy consumption processes can also be evaluated by considering biochemical equations directly, but ecologists do not often do this.

Materials of animal origin

Certain species, such as cows, can digest carbohydrate cellulose and change it into nutrients. Humans are mainly dependent on an intake of carbohydrates in the form of sugar and starch, but also need protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, etc.

Carbon reduction and allocation

Having more RUBISCO capacity is not necessarily helpful either, owing to the susceptibility of RUBISCO to oxygen inhibition at low CO2 concentrations (400 M), RUBISCO functions as an oxidase, in initiating an alternative reaction that leads to the formation of glycerate 3-phosphate and phosphoglycolate. In the steady-state Calvin-cycle operation, the activity of RUBISCO serves to maintain the balance between NADPH generation and the output of carbohydrates. For a given supply of reductant from PSI, the rate of carbon fixation may be seen to depend upon an

Eukaryotic Cells

For a cell to grow and divide, the nutrients it acquires must be used to provide both a source of chemical energy for reactions and substrate molecules for these reactions. Catabolism refers to the chemical breakdown of nutrients to provide a source of chemical energy for cellular reactions. Anabolism refers to the cellular reactions that use the chemical energy and the nutrients as substrate molecules to build the more complex biological molecules and organelles. The details of metabolism of nutrients vary between species. The amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and mineral ions, which are obtained from digestion and from the external solution, are the building blocks for the rest of the cell. The energy for carrying out these synthetic (or anabolic) reactions is obtained from the respiration pathway. The respiration pathway varies between species depending on the presence of mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, intracellular symbiotic bacteria or...


Proteins have a central role in cell function. Like carbohydrates and lipids, they are involved in structure and in energy metabolism. More important is the function unique to proteins Each of the thousands of enzymes in living things, each of which catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction, is a protein specialized for that task. In addition, they may act as biochemical regulators or hormones, such as insulin transport chemicals such as hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in the blood or they may be responsible for motility, as in the cilia and flagella of protists.

Soil Structure

There is a hierarchical nature to the ways in which soil structure is achieved, and it reflects the biological interactions within the soil matrix (Elliott and Coleman, 1988 Six et al., 2002). Several Australian researchers (Tisdall and Oades, 1982, 1984 Waters and Oades, 1991) have noted how the processes of structuring soils extend over many orders of magnitude, from the level of the individual clay platelet to the ped in a given soil. For most of the biologically significant interactions, one can consider changes across a range of at least six orders of magnitude from


Photoautotrophic productivity largely refers to carbon assimilation by photosynthetic bacteria and the chloro-plast in eukaryotic organisms. In most photosynthetic bacteria, and in the chloroplast, the biochemistry of photosynthesis is nearly identical, reflecting a common origin in bacterial species that first assembled the photo-synthetic apparatus some 3 billion years ago. The major components of this biochemistry are light-harvesting protein complexes, electron-transport carriers, an ATP synthase, and soluble enzymes that assimilate CO2 and synthesize carbohydrates (Figure 1). Figure 1 A schematic of oxygen-evolving photosynthesis. Light is absorbed by pigments associated with photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) which excite electrons that leave a special pair of chlorophylls and pass through a series of electron-transport carriers, eventually reducing NADP to NADPH. Protons transported across the membrane in the reduction and oxidation of plastoquinone (PQ) are used to...

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