Changes at Individual Resolution The Application of the Eco Field Model to Individuals and Systems

According to the eco-field hypothesis every species or process perceives a species/process-specific surrounding (landscape) and any modification of this context produces reactions buffered or enhanced by positive or negative feedback (Farina and Belgrano 2004).

This idea assigns to every specific biological function a physical space in which the resources are intercepted and the external energy is transferred to the internal environment. Scaling properties of each species-specific functional trait create a multitude of eco-fields. The vision of the landscape as a neutral matrix in which every species reacts is superseded by the idea that there exists a species-specific cognitive reality perceived exclusively by that functional trait of the focal species and the totality of the species-specific eco-fields. The Umwelt (sensu von Uexkull 1982 (1940)) becomes the landscape (for that species). This vision allows a formulation of a general theory of the landscape that until now has been split into separate paradigms.

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