Contents

1 The State of Art of Landscape Ecology:

20 Years of Paradigms and Methods 1

Introduction 1

From the Ecosystem Concept to the Landscape:

Historical and Scientific Motives 2

Brief History of Landscape Ecology 3

A New Model Links Landscape Ecology to Ecosystem Ecology 6

Emerging Properties of the Landscape 7

Ecological Theories and Models Incorporated into the

Landscape Ecology Paradigm 8

Concluding Remarks 9

Suggested Reading 10

References 11

2 Toward the Essence of the Landscape:

An Epistemological Perspective 15

Introduction 15

The Necessity of Defining a New Science of the Landscape 16

The Landscape Domain 17

Three Phenomenological Domains of Landscape 18

Complexity and Domains 20

Is the Landscape a Unit or a System? 21

Assessing the Characteristics of the Landscape: Ecosystem

Versus Landscape 22

The Landscape as a Matrix 22

Space and Landscape 25

Memory and Landscape 26

New Perspectives 28

Suggested Reading 28

References 28

3 Toward a Theory of the Mosaic 29

Introduction 29

Ecological Complexity and Mosaics 30

Definition of Mosaic 31

Heterogeneity and Mosaic 32

Heterogeneity versus Mosaic and Disorder versus Order 34

Rules Governing Structure and Dynamics of the Ecological Mosaics 34

What Processes Create Mosaics? 38

The Matrix as the "Container" of the Ecological Complexity 39

The Mosaic as a Level of the Ecological Matrix 40

Advantages of Living in a Mosaic-Like System 40

Energy and Information Across a Mosaic 42

Developing the Mosaic Theory from a Plant Perspective 44

Discontinuities 46

Complexity of the Ecological Mosaics 49

The Maintenance of Patchiness Inside a Mosaic 49

Self-Organizing of Mosaics and the Fifth Dimension 50

Connectivity Inside the Mosaic 52

Suggested Reading 53

References 53

4 Properties of Ecological Mosaics 55

Introduction 55

Hierarchical Organization of Ecological Mosaics 55

Scaling Properties of Mosaics 59

Agents of Temporal Changes of the Mosaic Structures 59

Grazing by Large Herbivores 60

Windthrow Disturbance and Mosaic 61

Fires and Mosaics 61

Patch Dynamics and Animal Responses 61

Resilience and Other Properties of Ecological Mosaics 63

Temporal Characters of Ecological Mosaics

(Ephemeral, Seasonal, Multiyear) 64

Patterned and Process Mosaics 65

Scaling the Mosaics by Species 66

Human Mosaicing 67

Mosaic Forecasting 70

Suggested Reading 70

References 70

5 Ontogenesis and Changes of the Landscape:

A Probabilistic View 73

Introduction 73

The Functional Circle of the Landscape 74

The Composition of the Landscape 75

The Probabilistic Model 76

Landscape Changes 77

The Dual Nature of Complex Systems 78

The Nature of the Changes 78

The "Human" Perception of Changes 79

Changes and Dynamics 80

Suggested Reading 80

References 80

6 The Ecotones 83

Introduction 83

Types of Ecotones 85

The Spatial Arrangement of Ecotones 85

The Nature of Ecotones 86

Matrix and Ecotones 87

The Origin of the Ecotone (Effect) 87

Shape of Ecotones 88

Suggested Reading 93

References 93

7 Measuring and Evaluating the Ecological Mosaics: General Assumption 95

Introduction 95

The Patch Size 96

The Patch Shape 97

The Patch-Matrix Contrast 98

The Turnover 98

The Contagion 98

The Lacunarity 99

The Diversity Index 99

The Evenness 100

The Dominance 100

Suggested Reading 100

References 101

8 The Cognitive Landscape 103

Introduction 103

Behavior: Perception and Action 104

About Ecological Niche and Habitat 107

The Definition of Eco-Field 108

The Individual Eco-Field and the Definition of the Cognitive Landscape 110

Scoring the Cognitive Landscape 112

Evolutionary Process Epistemology and Cognitive Landscape 114

The General Theory of Resources 115

Conservation and the Cognitive Landscape 117

Changes at Individual Resolution: The Application of the Eco-Field Model to Individuals and Systems 119

Individual Displacement, Individual Extinction, or Change of Functional Traits: Three Possible

Outcomes of Change in the Eco-Field 120

Source-Sink Model and Eco-Field 121

Cognitive Landscape and "Neutral Landscape" 122

Individual-Based Cognitive Landscape and the Societal-Based

Landscape: The Human Case 122

The Emergent-Properties Based Landscape (EPBL) 124

Eco-Semiotic and Cognitive Landscape 127

Signs from the Landscape 129

The "Dimension" of the Signs 131

The Soundscape: A Peculiar Landscape 131

Conserving Natural Soundscapes 132

Cognitive Landscape Versus Geographical Landscape 135

Discussion 137

Suggested Reading 137

References 138

9 The Landscape as a Human Agency 143

The Landscape and Humans 143

Sustainability, Biodiversity, and Landscape Ethics 143

The Cognitive Landscape and the Eco-Semiotic Approach 145

Landscape as an Eco-Semiotic Interface: A New

Human-Oriented Perspective for the Landscape 146

The Cognitive Landscape and the Theory of Resources:

A New Frontier for Ecology 148

Society and Landscape 149

Developing the Theory of Resources: Landscape and Sense of Place . . 150 Resources and Cognitive Landscape: The Special

Case of Therapeutic Landscapes 151

Suggested Reading 153

References 153

Epilogue: From Paradigm Dynamics Towards Landscape

Ecology Ontogenesis 157

References 160

Index

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