Landscaping Designs

Ideas 4 Landscaping

Helen Whitfield brings you the definitive ebook about ideas for your lawn and home. You will get all the best ideas to make the most beautiful landscape for your own lawn, with personalized tips for your unique type of lawn. Far too many landscapers prefer to overcharge you rather than give you a good deal on your lawn. Do not let these people rip you off; go ahead and learn the tips that they already know to be able to make the best lawn that you possibly can! It takes less effort than you might think to make an awesome lawn And you do not have to shell out massive amounts of money to get your lawn looking like something right out of a magazine. This ebook answers all of the questions that you might have about landscaping, and gives you all of the ideas that you need to make a great lawn of your own! More here...

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Landscape Design Creation And Restoration

Landscape design is an important component of practical landscape ecology. Generally landscape design is considered an activity to rehabilitate degraded landscapes, or modify landscapes after a change in land use, as with fields in urban fringes. This important branch of landscape ecology is too far reaching to include in this book, but some guidelines will be given. The principle that guides landscape design is, in summary, the synthesis between human perception and ecological processes. Modern landscape design sees visual patterns as the prime criterion, creating a harmonious view of neighbouring areas. This depends largely on the countryside-oriented sensitivity that creates recognizable British, central European or Mediterranean landscapes. Landscape design in most cases consists in planting trees and shrubs in appropriate quantities, shapes and diversity, mimicking natural patterns and increasing visual and structural complexity. These actions in general are favourable to many...

Levels and Steps in Landscape Planning

Typically, landscape planning provides information about the existing qualities of the landscape and nature, which are considered to be nature or landscape potentials, and their value as well as their sensitivity to impacts, the existing and potential impacts on these potentials, and the objectives and guidelines for the development ofthe landscape and nature, upon which proposed measures and development plans can be measured. With this information, landscape planning provides evaluation guidelines for the impact regulations and for the part of the environmental impact assessment which is concerned with the landscape and nature. In the beginning phases of planning projects, landscape planning offers a background for the evaluation of alternatives, for example, in the placement of transportation corridors. Landscape planning provides a basis for preliminary opinions about proposed projects, even for projects which were proposed after the completion of the landscape plan. Bastian and...

Introduction to naturalistic planting in urban landscapes

Over the past couple of decades in Britain and other Western countries, the ongoing decline of public landscape maintenance, the realisation that funding will never again reach the levels of the nineteenth century or even early twentieth century, and the arrival of new social and environmental movements, has initiated a search for 'new' planting styles to help re-envigorate public landscapes. Views differ on what these might be, however the consensus is that these plantings should have relatively low-maintenance costs, be as sustainable as possible, taxonomically diverse, demonstrate marked seasonal change, and support as much wildlife as possible. These requirements fly in the face of traditional horticultural wisdom, which rightly argues that maintenance costs are generally proportional to planting complexity. We argue in this book that the only possible way to escape this restriction is to move away from wholesale reliance on traditional horticulturally-based plantings. By...

Preface And Acknowledgments

In addition though, solutions to environmental and societal problems require cross-disciplinary design and planning by groups. Another objective of this book is to strengthen the two-way street between ecologists and planners landscape architects. Plenty of ecologists will also read this book, and some will take a deeper interest in landscape architecture and land-use planning. Such a synergism will result in deeper understanding We also deeply appreciate and are delighted to acknowledge the following persons J. Thomas Atkins (Jones & Jones, Seattle, Washington), Margot D. Cantwell (Environmental Design and Management, Halifax, Canada), Leslie Kerr (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska), Alistair T. Mcintosh (Sasaki Associates, Watertown, Massachusetts), and Mary Ann Thompson (Thompson and Rose Architects, Cambridge, Massachusetts) provided important critical reviews from the perspective of practicing professionals. Carl Steinitz (Harvard University) kindly permitted us...

Comparative Approach

The unprecedented growth of cities and towns around the world, coupled with the unknown future effects of global change, has created an urgent need to increase ecological understanding of human settlements, in order to develop inhabitable, sustainable cities and towns in the future. Although there is a wealth of knowledge regarding the understanding of human organisation and behaviour, there is comparatively little information available regarding the ecology of cities and towns. This book brings together leading scientists, landscape designers and planners from developed and developing countries around the world, to explore how urban ecological research has been undertaken to date, what has been learnt, where there are gaps in knowledge, and what the future challenges and opportunities are.

From Design To Function

In the twentieth century the changing relationship between nature, technology and urban space was driven to a significant degree by the spread of car ownership. This technological dynamic transcended national differences to the extent that we can discern striking similarities between the landscaped highways of Germany, Italy and the United States. In Martin Wagner's plans for 1920s Berlin, for example, the need for regional mobility was combined with the development of new peripheral housing estates. Wagner attempted to re-organize urban space in order to promote the greatest possible human happiness so that the rationalization of social and economic life and the rationalization of space became inseparable facets of the same process (see Scarpa 1986). Similarly, in Fritz Schumacher's plans for Hamburg (1909) and Cologne (1920) the centres of these cities were to be opened out with parks and public spaces to foster a new kind of leisure-oriented metropolitan culture (see, for example,...

Ecology Modernity And The Postindustrial Metropolis

The return to nature in the post-industrial metropolis also denotes a conscious rejection of the kind of aridity engendered by the concrete landscapes associated with technological modernism. The understanding and utilization of urban eco-systems has become more sophisticated to embrace a more holistic conception of the interaction between bio-physical processes and urban society. The development of new approaches to ecological restoration , for example, marks a self-conscious attempt to recreate the bio-diversity of ecosystems that preceded the growth of the industrial metropolis in order to foster a different kind of synthesis between nature and culture. In the case of river channels, for instance, we can find examples of ecological restoration efforts which not only add aesthetic interest to the landscape but also contribute towards improvements in flood control and waste water treatment to produce a post-industrial or late modern synthesis between advances in ecological science...

Applied Systems Thinking

In this regard, the news is guardedly optimistic. The art and science of high-performance building is growing. The result is a new generation of buildings that require a fraction of the energy of conventional buildings, use materials screened for environmental effects, minimize water consumption, and are landscaped to promote biological diversity, moderate microclimates, and grow foods. The best of these are highly efficient, powered substantially by sunlight and feature daylight, water recycling, and interior green spaces. They are a finer calibration between our five senses and the built environment and tend to promote higher user satisfaction and productivity. The costs of building green, as it turns out, are not necessarily higher than conventional buildings while having lower operating costs. The goal is to design buildings as whole systems, not as disjointed components. The green building movement is now a worldwide movement and is transforming the practice of architecture,...

The changing nature of ecology a history of ecological planting 18001980

Man's philosophical view of nature has altered across different historical periods and political movements, and this has been reflected in the way that plants are used. Ecological ideas and principles, although not necessarily referred to as such at the time, have been applied in landscape and garden design much longer than is generally appreciated. Two main applications of ecological ideas can be traced over the last 200 years or so the plant geographic approach that aims to recreate representative examples of specific vegetation types from around the world (or their essential character) and the physiognomic approach that aims for natural character, patterns and functioning in vegetation, but without particular regard to the geographic origin of the component species.

Summary and Conclusion

An innovative control for shoreline erosion was successfully carried out in a state park in the lake area. The dual goal of the project was to combine the beneficial use of dredge material, indigenous plants, and landscaping to reduce sediment loading into Lake Erie, and to protect the recreational aspects of Presque Isle State Park. The completed project has resulted in several additional hectares of stabilized vegetation and has decreased soil and subsequent nutrient runoff from entering Lake Erie. The amount of material removed from the Perry Monument sand bar has facilitated recreational boat usage and shoreline fishing in this area.

The Limits of Nature and the Educational Nature of Limits

The town already jeopardized by urban sprawl. That, however, is an aesthetic matter on which people can and will disagree. What they cannot dispute is the cost of parking. The cost of a single parking space is estimated to be 7,000 in a paved lot and double that for a parking deck. Then there is the annual cost of policing, lighting, removing snow, and landscaping parking lots, perhaps another 1,500. From this perspective, one obvious solution is simply not to build extra parking and split the savings with those who do not to bring cars to college or drive them to work. So in return for not adding to the problem, cooperators would get a check for, say, 5,000. Those who continue to drive for whatever reason would pay a fee equal to the real costs imposed on the institution by their driving habits. Reasonable Not according to many who believe that driving is a sacred right guaranteed somewhere in the Constitution (or was it the Declaration of Independence ) and to those who believe that...

Practical Applications of Applied Human Ecology

Based on desert washes used to create a new form of suburban development in North Phoenix. From Steiner F (2000) The Living Landscape An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. New York McGraw-Hill. Figure 2 Open space systems. Based on desert washes used to create a new form of suburban development in North Phoenix. From Steiner F (2000) The Living Landscape An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. New York McGraw-Hill. Figure 3 Comparison of current suburban pattern in North Phoenix to one integrated with the desert. From Steiner F (2000) The Living Landscape An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. New York McGraw-Hill. Figure 3 Comparison of current suburban pattern in North Phoenix to one integrated with the desert. From Steiner F (2000) The Living Landscape An Ecological Approach to Landscape Planning. New York McGraw-Hill. Figure 4 Before and after of Kenyan hillside integrating agroforestry systems to produce food and wood while...

Aiacote Top Ten Green Projects

We have remodeled the finish materials and landscaping, adding storm shutters as well. The building is doing better than expected and has been improved over the years through upgrades. A public and private volunteer advisory board maintains the demonstration home and yard and keeps the curriculum up to date. More than 10,000 people visit each year, verifying the strong demand for credible information on sustainable designs of homes and yards.

Some Key Topics in Landscape Ecology

Between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning How do ecological, economic, and social processes interact to determine the resilience and vulnerability of landscapes What are the design principles for sustainable landscapes These are only a few of many challenging questions landscape ecology will continue to address in decades to come.

Case Studies In Brief

The following case studies similarly represent a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes from around the world. Case studies include both sound and unsound landscape ecology-based planning. A practical use of landscape ecology in land-use planning and landscape architecture of course does not assure success. Much can be learned from these brief descriptions of projects incorporating landscape ecology principles at different scales, but of course more is available in the accompanying references.

Developing a model to describe current practice

These clusters of philosophy and practice can be represented on a gradient to describe the relationship between art and nature in garden and landscape design. The 'nature' end might be indistinguishable by the casual observer from the creation of 'semi-natural habitats', developing dynamically with a minimum of human intervention. The other extreme is represented by what could be termed 'art', the use of plants to supply colour or purely sculptural effects. This approach is almost completely dependent upon frequent and intensive interventions by human agency for its intended effect, and owes little to the inspiration of the natural world. The formality of the Baroque tradition as exemplified by Andr Le N tre would be a classic example.

Ms and the Simulation of Plant Development

GMs are only concerned with the 3-D representation of plants and plant development (i.e., the meristem functioning). The model of plant development (often in a grammar shape) can be more or less faithful to botany what is important there is to obtain a good geometry. GMs produce organs whose sizes are fixed from empirical observations on real plants. Moreover, information about branching angles, phyllotaxy, and tropisms has to be included to increase the realism. Simulation of plant development uses schedulers and parallelism to simulate bud functioning and this leads to heavy computations for big trees due to a cumbersome topological structure. GMs are used in town and landscaping, advertising, even in botany or agronomy for getting nice 3-D mockups.

Habitat restoration and beyond designing a visual aesthetic into native plant communities

- A steadily increasing number of landscape and garden design professionals working in However, another common characteristic is the distinct lack of an artistic element in this field. Habitats are basically treated as a kind of filler, to be poured into the space available. This must contribute to occasional conflict with members of the public who may perceive this product as scruffy or inappropriate landscaping. As HirschmannWoodward notes, in a major study of the relationship between people and landscape, 'many ecological designs have also been critiqued for not accomodating people's need for order, meaning and beauty' (Woodward 1997). Indeed, she and others might argue that 'filler' landscaping like this is not really ecological as it leaves humans out of the ecological equation 'Ecological design recognises complex relationships between people, the land and a place. It shapes decisions that may affect both positive site function and positive human response to that site' (Woodward...

Landscape Evaluation and Landscape Indicators

The evaluation of nature is an inseparable part of the process of environmental landscape planning, manage ment, and decision making. In recent decades, its importance has reached the global level. At local and regional levels, landscape assessment for planning and decision making processes is a key issue in sustainable landscape management.

Table 10132 Sanitary Landfill Design Steps

Monitoring facilities n. Landscaping d. Development of final site plan showing normal fill areas special working areas (i.e., wet weather areas), leachate controls, gas controls, surface water controls, access roads, structures, utilities, fencing, lighting, washracks, monitoring facilities, and landscaping The location map is a topographic map which shows the relationship of the landfill to surrounding communities, roads, etc. The base map usually has a scale of 1 in to 200 ft and contour lines at 2 to 5 ft intervals. It includes the property line, easements, right-of-ways, utility corridors, buildings, wells, control structures, roads, drainage ways, neighboring properties, and land use. The site preparation map shows fill and stockpile areas and site facilities. The landfill should be designed so that the excavated material is used quickly as cover. Development plans show the landfill base and top elevations and slopes. Cross sections at various places...

The Riparian Zone and Its Elements

Based on the experiences of environmental management and landscape planning in several countries, the riparian zone (river corridor) can be divided into several parts depending on topography, soil conditions, the width of the natural flood plain area, natural vegetation zones, etc.

The Cognitive Landscape and the Eco Semiotic Approach

The hypothesis that most of the mobile organisms have a capacity for landscaping and use complex mechanisms based on memory-learning and thinking is reasonable and empirically demonstrated in many groups of animals (e.g. Benhamou and Poucet 1996, Edwards et al. 1996, Beecham 2001, Chittka and Thomson 2001, Grubb 2003).

Territorial Ecological Networks

Estonia Ecological Network

Table 2 Scales of landscape planning in Germany Table 2 Scales of landscape planning in Germany Landscape planning Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment. Adapted from Kiemstedt H (1994) Landscape Planning Contents and Procedures, 124pp. Bonn Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Minister of Environment. Figure 5 Example of the ecological network of Estonia at the national level. Protected areas and areas not protected but suitable for an ecological network according to their present natural state. Adapted from Remm K, Kulvik M, ManderU, and Sepp K(2004) Design of the Pan-European Ecological Network A national level attempt. In Jongman RHG and Pungetti G (eds.) New Paradigms in Landscape Planning Ecological Networks and Greenways, pp. 151-170. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Figure 5 Example of the ecological network of Estonia at the national...

An Innovative Control of Shoreline Erosion

Grand Forks North Dakota Wind Chills

In order to realize the goals of the project, the decision was made that rather than solely utilizing conventional riprap, the project would incorporate a combination of riprap as well as indigenous vegetation, bioengineering, dredge material, and innovative landscape architecture to retard shoreline erosion along a heavily used multipurpose trail. Completion of this project has provided valuable information to other parks and recreational facilities in the Great Lakes area (especially along bay inlet areas), which are also faced with the challenges of minimizing erosion and sedimentation as well as finding a beneficial use for dredge material. Prior to planting of the indigenous vegetation, plant community goals were established to ensure that the plants would thrive in the newly created environment. The plant community goals were developed by reviewing historical records of plant community structure in that area, consulting local and regional plant experts, and considering wildlife...

Evidence Relating Contact with Nature to Human Health and Well Being

Buildings and had no control over landscaping. Yet, the study found residents of the vegetated buildings had significantly higher levels of physical and emotional well-being, better coping and conflict management skills, and superior cognitive functioning. Moreover, residents of the buildings surrounded by trees and grass revealed better social ties, superior interpersonal relationships with neighbors and strangers, lower violence and crime rates, greater safety and security, and a stronger sense of community than residents of the buildings surrounded by concrete and asphalt.

Groundcover Or Woodmulch

Pictures Grasslands Root Systems

Devices (such as a collection system or a cascade of other BMPS). Vegetation plays several roles in rain garden function. The root systems of plants improve infiltration, and plant growth absorbs some pollutants and increases evapotranspiration. A variety of species can be planted and a landscaping approach is usually used in their design. This makes the rain garden an attractive system that improves the aesthetic values of the surrounding landscape. The rain garden system is new and long-term maintenance requirements are not completely known. They may need to be periodically excavated and rebuilt to avoid soil crusting, clogging, or sedimentation. As with any new system, design knowledge can be expected to grow as more examples are built and studied over time.

What Is Landscape Ecology

How does spatial heterogeneity influence the flows of organisms, material, and energy. How does landscape pattern affect the spread of disturbances such as pest outbreaks, diseases, fires, and invasive species How do patterns and processes on different scales relate to each other. How can ecological information be translated from fine to broad scales and vice versa. How can the knowledge of spatial heterogeneity help improve biodiversity conservation, planning, and management. How can sustainable landscapes be developed and maintained. Studies in landscape ecology usually involve the extensive use of spatial information from field survey, aerial photography, and satellite remote sensing, as well as pattern indices, spatial statistics, and computer simulation modeling. The intellectual thrust of this highly interdisciplinary enterprise is to understand the causes, mechanisms, and consequences of spatial heterogeneity, while its ultimate goal is to provide a scientific basis and...

Classification of Ecotechnology

Land Classification Based Nutrient

Type 4 ecological engineering is based, to a great extent, on pollution prevention by utilization of ecosystems on an ecologically sound basis. Although it is very difficult to find environmental engineering alternatives in this case, it is clear that a prudent harvest rate of renewable resources (whether, e.g., timber or fish) is the best long-term strategy from an ecological and economic perspective. Ecologically sound landscape planning is another example of the use of type 4 ecological engineering.

Product Reformulation

Dow Chemical Company achieved waste reduction through changes in product packaging. A wettable powder insecticide, widely used in landscape maintenance and horticulture, was originally sold in 2-lb metal cans. The cans had to be decontaminated before disposal, creating a hazardous waste. Dow now packages the product in 4-oz water-soluble packages which dissolve when the product is mixed with water for use (U.S. Congress 1986).

Stability And Product Quality

The major compost uses include large-scale landscaping (golf courses, public works projects, highway median strips), local nurseries, industries (as potting material), greenhouses, urban gardeners, land reclamation projects (strip mines), and landfill (daily and final cover).

Production and Uses of Compost

Composting waste material is a major growth industry in many parts of the world. As public and governmental pressures restrict other methods of disposal of organic wastes even more, the production and utilization of compost is increasing. Compost can substitute for traditional materials (i.e., peat moss) that may no longer be available in the plant production and landscaping industries, and the use of recycled materials is increasingly required.

Heimbold Visual Arts Center Sarah Lawrence College Location Bronxville New York Architect Polshek Partnership

Describe how the development of the project's site responds to its ecological context. How does the site selection and design relate to ecosystems at different scales, from local to regional Describe the landscape design and the creation, re-creation, or preservation of open space, permeable groundscape, and or on-site ecosystems. This is Stanford University's first green building, and it is designed to make a statement about the importance of conserving natural resources. Site selection considered solar access and impact on natural habitats and archaeological resources. Construction-site management included fencing to prevent work under the drip line of mature oaks. Ninety-five percent of the construction waste was diverted from landfill. Water-free urinals, dual-flush toilets, tankless water heaters, and native landscaping reduce water use, and rainwater collected from the roof is reused. Passive-cooling and solar-heating systems combine with good insulation and extensive...

Indigenous Conservation

The Caribbean ecosystem encountered by Columbus has been entirely transformed over the past 500 years by the introduction of alien species and plantation systems of cultivation. The eastern woodlands of North America have also been radically transformed by patterns of habitation and exploitation in the postcontact era. Yet ethnohistorical research has revealed that landscapes once thought to be pristine at the time of European settlement had already been greatly affected by indigenous occupation, landscaping, and harvesting practices. Environments that are taken for natural, meaning unmodified by man, often turn out to have undergone transformation by humans. Even the vegetation of some old-growth forests has long been affected by the controlled use of fire. The stated goal of some conservationists to restore a particular habitat to a prior state before colonization and tech Anthropogenic, or human-formed, landscapes are far more pervasive than was previously assumed. The mounds built...

Plant Communities In Amsterdam

A general concern about the Dutch dunes, their flora and fauna. Designed by Springer at the initiation of Thijsse and planted by Cees Sipkes, it attempted to include all the species of the dune flora referred to as growing in the region by F.W.van Eeden in 1886. During the Second World War this sort of garden was referred to as an instructive park, emphasising its educational importance, but since the war these types of parks have been referred to as heemparks, with 'heem' representing environment, yard or home. These were defined as areas in which landscape architecture was conducted with the assistance of wild flora. They were as labour intensive as ordinary parks (Figure 2.11). As a result of the limited availability of scientific and practical information, the uptake of this type of planting was restricted to large parks, such as the Zuiderpark in the Hague, implemented between 1921 and 1936 according to designs by landscape architect D.F.Tersteeg and P.Westbroek (Pannekoek and...

Some Iconic Examples

These are examples of the broader societal context in which 'applied ecology' does its work. The discipline is generally seen to add value to restoration ecology, habitat management and rehabilitation, management of invasive species (both native and exotic), conservation biology, wildlife utilization, protected area management, and agroecosystem management. The discipline also makes important contributions to environmental forensics, landscape architecture, ecotourism, and fisheries.


Landscape architecture and land-use planning have a long and distinguished history of inspired accomplishments. The images of extensive Italian country villas, 19th-century planning and design of major American cities, and the 20th-century development of national parks are impressive harmonies in the land. A key to their brilliance is the enlightened meshing of nature and culture. The objectives of this book are to 1. Pinpoint many key principles of landscape ecology, especially those directly usable in land-use planning and landscape architecture. 2. Illustrate how principles can be used in planning and design projects. The key literature and concepts of landscape architecture and land-use planning are doubtless well known to the reader. However, a brief background in landscape ecology appears useful. The foundations may be traced back to scholars up to about 1950, who elucidated the natural history and physical environment patterns of large areas. Certain geographers, plant...


Typical response instruments are legislative procedures (laws, ban, production standards), planning (construction and development plans, landscape planning), market or public-oriented instruments (taxes, bills, subventions), cooperation, information, education, and participation.


A myriad of complex and seemingly unrelated decisions occurs in the land-use planning and landscape architecture professions. During the analysis phase of a project, a variety of social, legal, demographic, topographic, microclimatic, and other site-specific information is simultaneously considered. Too seldom, however, does site analysis incorporate a more broad-reaching, landscape ecological approach, where the impacts of a particular land-use plan or landscape design are considered within the larger, ecological context of the landscape or region. The principles applied to this typical agricultural-suburban-forested area are just as valid in a coastal, desert, or mountainous area. Land-use plans and landscape designs incorporate changes of a generalizable nature. What matters more than the specific land-use change or design proposal are the consequences of that change or design. For example, does the design proposal create a gap in an animal movement corridor Does the


Rehabilitation is traditionally initiated by hydroseed-ing with grass species and or planting of tree species for erosion control and esthetic improvement. Landscaping and artificial revegetation are the initial rehabilitation works, irrespective of the afteruse of the site, as this accelerates ecological development. The site is revege-tated preferentially using grasses which grow fast and provide good immediate ground cover to control erosion and reduce visual impact. Grass swards also survive better than trees on landfills with gas influence, a feature which is attributed to their shallow rooting depth. Tree planting is less popular especially on the top platform of a landfill, because of the negative effects of tree growth on landfills. Following initial revegetation, the rehabilitated site is left for secondary succession to take place.

Project Description

Prior to planting of the indigenous vegetation, plant community goals were established to ensure that the plants would thrive in the newly created environment. The plant community goals were developed by reviewing historical records of plant community structure in that area, consult ing local and regional plant experts, and considering wildlife uses of the site. After the goals were established, a vegetation planting plan was prepared. Final preparation of the site prior to planting included the addition of topsoil to the upper layer of sand, and shaping of the dune line.

Nature Conservation

In landscape planning and policy making, phytosocio-logical units are used to underpin normative judgments and set conservation priorities by evaluating their naturalness and endangerment. Naturalness, or its reciprocal concept, hemeroby, ranks communities by the strength of human influence and consequent alterations of species composition, structure, and ecological processes. Methodologies range from assigning community types to classes of naturalness to complex evaluation schemes taking detailed account of community features.

American Chestnut

Even until the 1930s, chestnut was a predominant species throughout much of the Appalachian chain. The most versatile tree species of the region, its health was not much affected by insects or diseases (except a singular case subsequently noted). Its attractive wood, ideal for furniture and interior trim, did not warp or twist. Its toughness made it useful structural timber. Its durability when in contact with the soil or exposed to the elements made the wood useful for split-rail fencing, posts, and pilings, as well as for shakes and shingles for roofs and siding. The high tannin content supported a tannic acid extract industry that, in turn, provided the chemical required for treating leather. Chestnut's edible fruit pleased both man and wildlife its aesthetically pleasing form was valued for landscaping (as in William Wadsworth Longfellow's Under the spreading chestnut tree, the village (black) smithy stands ) it regenerated rapidly from both seeds and sprouts and, as noted...

Figure 88

Enhanced by gardeners who cultivate it for its flowers it is still widely used in landscaping and private gardens (Figure 8.9). It appears to have escaped from cultivation several times west of the Mississippi because its distribution there is far more scattered than in the east and midwest (Stuckey 1980). Today the worst L. salicaria infestations are in the midwest and east, with the St. Lawrence River watershed and the Great Lakes region particu-lary affected. It is now found in all of the contiguous U.S. except Florida and in all of the Canadian provinces (Weeden et al. 1996a).

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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