Start Your Own Lawn Care Business

Lawn Compony Secrets

This ebook guide is the definitive source on how to start your own complete lawn care business that you can support yourself or your family on. Most people laugh at the idea of getting rich off of a lawn care business, but you will have the last laugh when you are able to rake in the money hand over fist. People are getting their yards cut every day of the summer and spring; what is to stop you from getting in on the action? And that is not even the best part. Once you build your business to a certain point, you can sell it off for a HUGE paycheck. Some people will pay upwards of several hundred thousand dollars for a good lawn care business. Do not let your own doubts stop you! You can do it! Others have done it and turned a big fortune; you can do the same. There is money to be made in lawns everywhere! Read more...

Lawn Compony Secrets Summary


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Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Lawn Compony Secrets can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

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How to Start a Lawn Care Business

For some people, lawn care is their ultimate ticket to financial freedom. This ebook does not teach you how to make money without working; you have to put in the time in order to get the results. But if you keep at it, you will be able to more than triple your time off and make twice the money that most jobs would ever give you. You will learn how to start your business from scratch even if you know nothing about business, you will learn how to hire on a team and manage the people on the team, and you will learn how to upsell your current services to make even MORE money than you were before. This is not a scummy, get rich quick method; you will learn how to get rich at a normal pace. Anyone telling you you can get rich quickly is trying to fool you; we CAN teach you how to get rich with good, hard work.

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Author: Kevin Whiteside
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The Political Economy Of Lawn Chemical Production

We wish to suggest here, moreover, that the expansion of the lawn and the increasing intensity of its ecology occur at appreciable expense and represents the end of an extensive commodity chain, with political economic pressures for its development exerted at multiple scales. Pressures for the development of the lawn monoculture are most evident at the local scale where the economy of urban development assures a steady supply of spaces for management and an enforced demand for normative lawn aesthetics.

Lawn Chemical Use Ecology And Risk

The pronouncements of people like Tom, interviewed in his home in 2003, suggest a growing awareness that lawn chemicals have social and ecological effects. More generally, there is a growing acknowledgment that the demands of lawn care, when met by input-oriented control solutions, inevitably involve a certain degree of risk, sometimes made manifestly obvious in cases of acute exposure (as in the case of Suzanne above). Even the Scotts Company, the industry leader in lawn chemical retail sales with 52 percent of market share, explained to its investors in 2001, We cannot assure that our products, particularly pesticide products, will not cause injury to the environment or to people under all circumstances (United States Securities and Exchange Commission 2001 16). This is largely a result of the specific ecology of lawn species. Anglo-Americans originally introduced these landscapes from Eurasia, along with almost all of their constituent species, including Bahiagrass (Paspalum...

The lawn speaks objects subjects and political ecology

None of this is to say that the lawn isn't itself produced or that it somehow pre-exists the capitalist economy of its creation. Nevertheless, the lawn itself has independent power in the process of producing that economy, its constituent agents, and the ideas of those agents. It is not the prime mover of such a system, but it is an essential part. It has its own interests too, mediated by the structured flows of fertilizer, water, and pesticides in the urban infrastructure where it is resident. This role, previously only assigned to social actors and institutions (policemen, courts, offices, families), must be extended to the nonhuman if there is any hope of resisting and dismantling the political economies of nature in which we are so tightly bound. This approach to the lawn, we would further argue therefore, holds epistemological implications for a far wider problem in political ecological explanation. How do objects matter in a world where culture mediates our experience of...

The lawn as community ideology

The neighbors have a lawn service and their guy comes out on Wednesdays. So, I try to cut my grass on Wednesdays also because our yards kind of flow together. And the neighbor behind us, if they see us out they will also cut their grass on the same day, to keep it all looking nice at the same time So we kind of keep an eye on each other, thinking OK, this is grass cutting day. As Suzanne suggests and as echoed by myriad other informants, the needs of the lawn are the business of the community. Survey results indicate that lawn managers who use chemicals are statistically more likely to know their neighbours by name than those who do not use chemicals, they are more likely to claim that their neighbours use chemicals, and they are more likely to report being interested in knowing what is happening in their neighbourhoods (Robbins and Sharp 2003 a and b). Lawn chemical users further are more likely to report that their neighbours' lawn care practices, no matter what they were, have a...

Rock and Mineral Resources

Of the metamorphic rocks, the Inwood Marble and the Fordham Gneiss were quarried in Westchester County for facing stone to adorn high-rise buildings in Manhattan. White marble also comes from the marble belt east of Albany. Lower grades of marble wind up in sacks of ground and slaked lime for lawns and agriculture soil enrichment. The slate belt of eastern New York's Taconic range parallels the marble trend in Washington County. European slate miners crafted an enduring industry in slate products for roofing, walkways, and floor tiles.

Doing Urban Political Ecology

In the first three chapters after this introduction, the contours of an urban political-ecological project are outlined. In chapter 2, Erik Swyngedouw insists on the powerful possibilities that the mobilization of a historical-materialist framing of metabolism and circulation holds for capturing the political-ecological dynamics of urbanization. Metabolic urbanization and the production of cyborg cities are the central figures through which urban political ecology is explored in this chapter. In chapter 3, Roger Keil and Julie-Anne Boudreau mobilize urban political ecology and the metaphor of metabolics to explore how Toronto's recent urban politics and urban movements reshaped the urban agenda towards environmentalism in promising new directions. Matthew Gandy, in chapter 4, excavates the intricate and shifting relations between the historical dynamics of the urbanization of nature on the one hand and the transformations in ecological imaginaries on the other. All three contributions...

Richard C Falco Gary P Wormser and Thomas J Daniels

Since World War II, the massive expansion of suburbs has been the way that metropolitan areas grow. As suburbs were created, lawns and parks replaced forests and farms, and entire neighborhoods were built into woodlots. However, the exodus from the nation's older cities to previously unspoiled lands has come at a cost. The suburbs, with their typically wooded properties and increasing human population, have become an important environment for interaction between people and arthropod vectors, particularly ticks. In the United States, the emergence of Lyme disease provides the archetypal example ofjust such a process.

Environmental and behavioral factors impacting risk

The peridomestic nature of Lyme disease was first described in 1988, when studies in southern New York State of both Lyme disease cases and I. scapularis ticks removed from humans suggested that tick bites and B. burgdorferi infections often occurred around the home as a result of activities on the lawn (Falco and Fish, 1988a, 1988b). Subsequent investigations have provided additional evidence that residential exposure to tick bites is a major factor contributing to the development of Lyme disease. For example, in a study of lawns and adjacent woodlots in residential areas of southeastern Connecticut, 26.5 percent of I. scapularis nymphs and 36.4 percent of I. scapularis adults were collected directly from lawns, although the risk of exposure to infected nymphs varied spatially with the type of landscape and with each individual residence (Stafford and Magnarelli, 1993). In a residential subdivision in Westchester County, an attempt was made to determine the spatial distribution of I....

The controversy over chemical use and deer control

The most effective way for a suburban homeowner to reduce risk for tick bites significantly has been, and still is, the environmental application of insecticides (Barbour and Fish, 1993 Mount, 1993 Gern and Falco, 2000). However, there has been reluctance on the part of residents and some public health officials to advocate and implement chemical control due to environmental concerns (Stafford, 1991 Sonenshine, 1993 Golaine, 1992). The aversion to the use of chemicals, even those that have been approved by the federal Environmental Protection Agency for use in residential areas, has had a negative impact on efforts to prevent Lyme disease in endemic areas. However, due to the high prevalence of Lyme disease in suburban areas of the northeast, the benefit of reduced tick abundance through annual insecticide applications to lawns may outweigh potential environmental concerns (Barbour and Fish, 1993).

Municipal Wastewater Flow Reduction

Qasim (1985) suggests that home water reuse can lead to a 30 to 40 reduction in water consumption and a 40 to 50 reduction in wastewater volume. Wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, showers, and laundry can be treated on-site and reused for toilet flushing and lawn sprinkling.

Producing markets the global agrochemical industry

Raw, non-agricultural pesticides, on the other hand, represent a worldwide market currently worth around 7 billion, which is growing at 4 percent per annum, far more rapidly than the agricultural sector. 40 percent of these sales represent US household consumption. The turf care market for raw chemicals is itself about a billion dollars, and is also increasing annually (Agrow Reports 2000). By way of illustration, over 500,000 pounds of lawn care chemicals are applied annually in New Jersey, as compared to 63,000 pounds for mosquito control and 200,000 pounds for golf courses (New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection 2002). Agrochemical companies are therefore finding yard chemical formulators to be their most reliable customers and formulator companies have developed several agreements with chemical manufacturers to secure exclusive access to pesticide and fertilizer ingredients (United States Securities and Exchange Commission 2001). Contracting margins in the agrochemical...

Adaptation of Plants to New Habitats

Other basic life history patterns, such as a shift from annual to perennial habit, may also occur as a result of strong selection in the alien environment. In annual bluegrass (Poa annua), for example, perennial ecotypes tend to develop in areas of intensively mowed turf (McElroy et al. 2002). This species, native to Europe, is a problem grass in lawns and golf courses.

Nutrients and Eutrophication in Lakes

Although it occurs naturally, addition of anthropogenic nutrients hastens this process. People contribute nutrients in the form of fertilizer runoff from lawns and agricultural lands, human waste from either treatment plant discharge or indirectly from septic tanks, and animal waste from pasture or feedlot runoff. In these cases the process is termed cultural eutrophication. Oligotrophic lakes are preferred for numerous human

Environmental Advances With Plant Surfaces

Plant surfaces are an important factor in the environment of towns. Green plants bind and break down gases such as nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and produce oxygen. A combined leaf surface of 150 m2 produces the oxygen needed for one person. A150 m2 roof that has a 100 m2 leaf surface per square metre thus provides for the equivalent of 100 people. Awild, overgrown grass roof produces about 20 times as much oxygen as a well manicured lawn.

Management Strategies

A private nature management society owns the herd of livestock and provides it on a member partnership basis. Such partnerships often emerge in larger townships, or their vicinity, and relate to common land for larger development complexes or public amenity lands, such as parks, green connection corridors or riverside lawns. The society finances the herd and the members manage it. There are examples of such societies operating with success over more than a decade (Hansen, 1997). This solution normally involves no public expenses, but fencing subsidies may be available.

Effects Of Grassland Management And Climate Change

In intensive modern farms, grassland areas are ploughed and reseeded (usually with L. perenne in Europe) on a 5-10 year cycle, and their soils in consequence bear more similarity to arable fields than permanent grasslands. Additionally, the past 50 years have seen the widespread use of synthetic fertilizers to improve grassland productivity. Thus, disturbance and eutrophication have led to the demise of most macrofungal fruiting in these habitats, although it has yet to be demonstrated that the mycelia are also absent. Losses of fungal diversity generally mirror declines in plant and invertebrate diversity, and in the case of these better studied groups changes in grassland management can also lead to loss of diversity (Rook and Tallowin, 2003). Shifts from haymaking to silage production or from cattle and sheep to sheep only grazing have also altered patterns of abundance of higher plants and insects. For soil dwelling fungi such changes might be anticipated to have a lesser effect,...

Temperature and light

Inorganic nutrients, mainly forms of nitrogen and phos phorus, are some of the most widespread and biologically important substances released into and transported by streams. The large number of sources, as well as multiple reactions and transformations within both the terrestrial and aquatic environments, make these additions very difficult to control and predict. Major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus into stream ecosystems can enter through both point and nonpoint sources. Point source loadings come from a discrete source such as municipal and indus trial wastewater effluent outfalls, and are more easily incorporated in a management strategy since the general location of the source is known. Nonpoint sources are much more difficult to identify and address, and include fertilizer in runoff from cropland, urban lawns, golf courses, waste from animal operations, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, soil erosion, and contaminated groundwater inflow.

The National Park System

The park system also has cultural areas, which provide attractive settings for fine arts performance. One such area is the Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts in northeastern Virginia, which presents concerts and other fine arts programs in its 3,700-seat auditorium. Lawns around the auditorium provide seating space for additional 3,000 people.

Effects of grazing on sward condition

Three types of domestic animal are commonly used to graze grasslands cattle, equines (horses, ponies, and donkeys), and sheep. Cattle feed by ripping off tufts of vegetation and are the first choice for producing fine-scale variation in sward structure and patches of bare ground. Equines and sheep nibble the vegetation and are more selective in the plants they remove. If they like the vegetation, they nibble it uniformly short, but if they do not, they will ignore it. They therefore produce little fine-scale variation in the sward, but at moderate grazing densities can create coarse-scale variation comprising short, uniform lawns and dense, rank areas. Judicious grazing, particularly by cattle, is therefore better than cutting or burning in providing suitable conditions for birds requiring a close juxtaposition of suitable nest-sites and ranges of feeding conditions. Grazing influences vegetation composition by encouraging unpalatable and low growing plants that can tolerate repeated...

Chemical Components Nutrients

Come from a discrete source such as municipal and industrial wastewater effluent outfalls, and are more easily incorporated in a management strategy since the general location of the source is known. Nonpoint sources are much more difficult to identify and address, and include fertilizer in runoff from cropland, urban lawns, golf courses, waste from animal operations, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, soil erosion, and contaminated groundwater inflow.

Weasels And The Control Of Pest Mammals

On another occasion Lippincott was surprised to see meadow voles running across the lawn beside his house, until he found a small weasel busy flushing them out of nearby weeds. Later the same day he saw three meadow voles scurry across the road, with a brown streak in furious pursuit. He concluded that, even if a weasel does take a few ducklings in the springtime, he still preferred to have a weasel about the place than hordes of rodents.

Box 41 Seedcaching birds

Janzen Connell Hypothesis

Corvids are also important in the dispersal of other species. For example, successful colonization by the European oaks is strongly influenced by the size of jay Garrulusglandarius populations when these were low in the English Midlands in the 1970s oak seedlings were far rarer than they are now, when these birds can often be seen burying acorns in grassland and lawns. Despite these mechanisms, many woodland plants, especially herbs in the field layer, are poor dispersers they tend instead to be clonal (V) plants, have little recruitment from seed and possess no obvious mechanism for longdistance seed dispersal. This has led ecologists to wonder how they managed to migrate towards the poles after the last ice age. It has been assumed that given long periods of time, even small dispersal distances would allow woodland herbs to keep up with the migration of the forests. Cain et al. (1998) examined this assumption using mathematical models based on the seed dispersal of wild ginger...

The Arrangement of Indoor Aquariums

3) An aquarium for the fish specialist. Here the plants are of secondary importance because they are there only to fulfill the relatively minor decorative and biological purposes expected of them. Their maintenance should occupy the time of the aquarist as little as possible. Of the species whose vegetative propagation is rapid, the small plants forming a green lawn over the bottom prove most useful. Of the taller plants, only those that do not reproduce vegetatively (or do so very slowly) can be kept otherwise they would soon overgrow the aquarium and have to be thinned. Plants must also be chosen that will thrive in the water conditions given to the fish. Thus if mainly tetras are kept, the plants must require or at least tolerate an acid medium (Cryptocoryne). If live-bearers are the aquarist's main interest, Echinodorus, Sagittaria,

Grazing and Indirect Interactions among Species

This is a classically known result for nonselective grazing or lawn-mowing of terrestrial vegetation. This was noted a very long time ago by Darwin, who commented that mowing lawns causes the persistence of more species of plants than is the case where plants are allowed to grow undisturbed. In the absence of mowing, a few species of plants eventually dominate the space, light, and resources in the soil. Competition eliminates the others. Lawn-mowers operate in an unselective manner, cutting back all the species ofplants and thereby preventing competitive dominance and maintaining a greater diversity of plants.

Solid Waste Treatment

Highest level of potential degradability, due to both their organic makeup and their high water content. Cellulose-rich residues, whether discarded as lawn clippings or paper products, would also be amenable to biochemical degradation, although perhaps at a somewhat slower rate. Extending beyond these two segments, though, municipal solid waste includes many other materials whose composition will not be amenable, and possibly even antagonistic or inhibitory, to biochemical degradation. For example, MSW generated within affluent countries includes a sizable proportion of plastic, for which the vast majority will have no susceptibility to biochemical breakdown. Similarly, affluent countries generate municipal solid wastes with a proportionately higher percentage of metals (e.g., cans, batteries, used appliances) whose presence may actually lead to the release via leaching of soluble heavy (e.g., cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and transition (e.g., arsenic, selenium) metal ions that...

Direct Input from Pollutant Source

In addition to cross-connections of sewage and industrial wastes from sanitary sewers, solid waste dumps, and failing septic tanks, solids accumulations and growth in sewers can also enter into storm sewers. Excess water from lawn watering and car washing is another example of direct input. Pollutant loadings from direct inputs are difficult to document and quantify.

Lyme disease and the suburbs

Past studies have used a landscape approach to identify habitat features associated with the presence of I. scapularis. One, conducted in a residential area of Westchester County, New York, focused on a single neighborhood and found considerable variation among sampled properties. Although Maupin et al. (1991) noted a general pattern in which progressively fewer ticks were found on moving from the woodland to the wooded edge and onto residential lawns, it appears that the edge or ecotone habitat probably was underestimated. Edge effects may extend some distance into adjacent woodlots (Harris, 1984), though Maupin etal. (1991) limited consideration of edge to non-ornamental, unmaintained edge which abutted woodlots (p. 1106), and this may have resulted in too few ticks being counted. This approach offers a systematic way of discerning which ecological features of the landscape influence tick abundance, and how temporal changes in those features play a role at the population level....

Choosing Livestock for Control by Grazing

Graze preferred vegetation to 3-6 cm high lawns in a mosaic pattern. Eat substantial amounts of coarse vegetation. Graze most woody species as an integrated part of grazing. Have coprophobic behaviour -dung pats are avoided for months. Graze down to 2-3 cm height. Develop large lawns with short vegetation and leave other areas practically ungrazed. Eat large amounts of coarse vegetation. Limited browsing of woody species, many of which are avoided. Have coprophobic behaviour - dung pats are avoided for months and much dung is excreted in latrine areas. Graze down to 1-2 cm height. Graze in small-scale areas and over time develop a small-scale pattern lawn mosaic frequently in a net of neglected vegetation. Eat large amounts of browse and young herbs selectively. Do not avoid own dung.

Ecological problems of understorey plants

Landscape scale openings created by agents such as hurricanes and forest fires. There is also horizontal variation in light and water caused by the mosaic of tree canopies. Thus oaks can crowd together with small gaps between them while ponderosa pines in dry areas of western North America are widely spaced due to root competition for water. Variations in soil nutrients, pH, moisture and aeration, together with herbivore grazing patterns (from insects killing particular trees or shrubs to deer creating large grazed lawns) also have an effect. Even apparently uniform plantations contain small-scale variations in conditions leading to patches of understorey plants and insects. It should not be surprising, therefore, that on the scale that we experience when walking through woodlands, some are seemingly uniform while others are variable over very short distances.

The Emergence Of New Ecosystems

Around this same time period the ecosystem concept was applied to other new systems. For example, Falk (1976, 1980) studied suburban lawn ecosystems near Washington, DC. Lawns are heavily managed ecosystems that provide aesthetic value to humans. Falk identified food chains, measured energy flows, and documented management techniques using approaches developed for natural grassland systems. This work was an in-depth study of a new ecosystem type that later was expanded on by Bormann et al. (1993). Much more significant has been research on urban ecosystems. This work began in the 1970s (Davis and Glick, 1978 Stearns and Montag, 1974) and steadily increased, especially in Europe (Bernkamm et al., 1982 Gilbert, 1989 Tangley, 1986). Urban areas include many fragments of natural habitats along with entirely new habitats (Kelcey, 1975) and have unique features as noted by Rebele (1994)

Herbivory and plant fecundity

Death almost invariably follows their single burst of reproduction (see Chapter 4). Poa annua on a lawn can be made almost immortal by mowing it at weekly intervals, whereas in natural habitats, where it is allowed to flower, it is commonly an annual - as its name implies.

Funguslike Protists

Of the membrane sterol ergosterol (Alexopoulos et al., 1996). Molecular phyloge-netic studies are gradually piecing together the relationships of some of these groups, about which we know very little compared to vascular plants or metazoan animals. Early studies were limited by the small number of representatives in culture, but the growing Tree of Life project (e.g., Lutzoni et al., 2004) and broad-scale sequencing of environmental DNA (e.g., Venter et al., 2004) are obtaining sequences for novel taxa and discovering many previous unknown lineages among fungi and basal eukaryotes (e.g., Vandenkoornhuyse et al., 2002 Schadt et al., 2003). Funguslike members of the protist Phylum Cercozoa are represented in soil by soil-borne plant pathogens Plasmodiophora and Spongospora (Plasmodiophoromycetes), which infect roots via biflagellate zoospores and then form a multinucleate plasmodium within their hosts (Braselton, 2001). Diverse unrecognized lineages of this phylum are apparently...

Turfgrass Subjects

The imperatives of a global industry, the complexity of worldwide markets, the ongoing decline in the rate of profit, together seem like inexorable engines for lawn pesticide use. It is tempting therefore, to leave discussion here, following the traditional chain of explanation in political ecology (Blaikie and Brookfield 1987). Chemicals create risks. Why Because chemical users over-apply them. Why Because direct marketing of aesthetics influences them Why Because formulators are in a production squeeze and producers are in a state of consolidation. And yet, there is something unconvincing in this account. It depends on a model of human behaviour and volition that seems too crude. How do people become convinced that certain ways of being and doing are normal, especially ways that contradict their better judgment In a national surveys of lawn owners, for example, it has previously been discovered that those people who acknowledge the environmental risks of chemicals are the ones most...

Types of Water

People may get their potable (drinking) water from a community source, such as a public or private water utility, or from an individual private source, such as a residential well. Water supplied to members of the public from private sources (usually, wells) by hotels, gasoline stations, camps, and similar small institutions are referred to as noncommunity sources. Potable water is also used for food preparation, cleaning dishes and clothes, and washing and bathing, as well as for direct ingestion. In most cases it is also used for flushing toilets and watering lawns and gardens, although in areas with limited supplies a separate nonpotable source may be used for these purposes. Industries commonly use potable water for their process water needs, sometimes following further purification. After use, much of the water from homes and industry becomes wastewater.

Bite scale

Parsons analyzed in the late 1990s the dual stability property in an extension of the Noy-Meir model describing grazing as a discrete and stochastic process at the bite scale. They found that dual stability was much less likely than previous models predicted and the potential effects of dual stability were minor because the productivities of the two stable equilibria were virtually indistinguishable in a field situation. In a second analysis, they assumed that patches with low biomass were more likely to be defoliated and found again a reduced tendency for dual stability. Instead, the system showed a tendency to generate bimodal frequency distributions (of biomass per patch) where two distinct patch populations are maintained side by side. This phenomenon has, for example, been observed repeatedly in cattle-grazed systems and is known as grazing lawns in rangelands. Further refinements of grazing models at the bite scale require a spatially explicit account of...

Oil Sources

Scavengers are reluctant to collect oil, and frequently oil reaches the local sewer system. The machine tool industry uses considerable volumes of oil for lubrication and cutting. All mechanized industries require oil for lubrication. In the steel industry, fabricated metals are frequently dipped in oil to prevent rust during storage. Runoff from highways and parking lots contains measurable amounts of oil leaked from motor vehicles. Another source of oil is the common two-cycle engine used frequently for lawn mowers and outboard motors. Tests show that at low speeds, two-cycle outboard motors bypass as much as one-third of the total fuel-oil mixture.


The archaeocins produced by Sulfolobus are entirely different from halocins, since their activity is predominantly associated with the cells and not the supernatant (Prangishvili et al. 2000). Prangishvili et al. (2000) were the first to isolate and characterize these proteinaceous toxins, which they called sulfolobicins, in keeping with bacteriocin nomenclature. Provisionally, the producer strain has been named Sulfolobus islandicus. Screening for sulfolobicin activity involves spotting samples of exponentially growing S. islandicus cells onto lawns of the sensitive strain S. solfataricus P1. Following incubation, nearly clear zones with sharp borders are generated, the size of the zone of inhibition being inversely proportional to the concentration of sensitive cells in the lawn. To date, the spectrum of sulfolobicin activity appears to be restricted to other members of the sulfolobales the sulfolobicin inhibited S. solfataricus P1, S. shibatae B12, and six non-producing strains of...

Peatland Types

Figure 3 Peatland complex in northern Alberta, Canada. Patterned fen in left foreground, bog island with localized permafrost (large trees) and melted internal lawns to left, and curved treed bog island to right background. Small treed, oval island in center is upland. Figure 3 Peatland complex in northern Alberta, Canada. Patterned fen in left foreground, bog island with localized permafrost (large trees) and melted internal lawns to left, and curved treed bog island to right background. Small treed, oval island in center is upland.

Concluding remarks

The world do not have to cause mass extinctions, however, such low-Intensity use probably requires a much lower population size than currently found on Earth, if it is to be widespread. (a) Forest Meadow at Rashult (the birth place of Linnaeus) in southern Sweden. Pollen analysis has shown that this meadow system was created, from woodland, about 900 years ago (Lindbladh and Bradshaw, 1995). It is still managed by traditional methods, with the aid of subsidies, as this is no longer an economic way to farm in Sweden. It is rich in plant species, as is appropriate for the birthplace of one of the greatest names in plant taxonomy (b) Traditional, species rich, alpine meadow in the Italian Dolomites. Because of the steep terrain it is still managed by traditional methods (the mechanical harvester in the picture being little larger than a domestic lawn-mowing machine).

Grassland Types

Although temperate and tropical grasslands encompass the most extensive grass dominated ecosystems, grasses are present in most types of vegetation and regions of the world. Where grasses are locally dominant they may form desert (see Deserts) grassland, Mediterranean (see Mediterranean) grassland, subalpine and alpine grasslands (sometimes referred to as meadows or parks), and even coastal grassland. Most grasslands are dominated by perennial (long-lived) plants, but there are some annual grasslands in which the dominant species must reestablish each year by seed. Intensively managed, human-planted, and maintained grasslands (e.g., pastures, lawns) occur worldwide as well.

Effects of grazers

Exploiter Mediated

Lawn-mowers are relatively unselective predators capable of maintaining a close-cropped sward of vegetation. Darwin (1859) was the first to notice that the mowing of a lawn could maintain a higher richness of species than occurred in its absence. He wrote that Grazing animals are usually more choosy than lawn-mowers, and this is clearly demonstrated by the occurrence in the neighborhood of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) burrows of plants which for chemical or physical reasons are unacceptable as food to the rabbits (including the poisonous deadly nightshade Atropa belladonna and the stinging nettle Urtica dioica). Nevertheless, many grazers seem to have a similar general effect to lawn-mowers. Thus, in one experiment, grazing by oxen (Bos taurus) and zebu cows (Bos taurus indicus) in natural pasture in the Ethiopian highlands was manipulated to provide a no-grazing control and four grazing intensity treatments (several replicates of each) in two sites. Figure 19.14 shows how the mean...


How Can Drought Affect The Environment

Water pollutants often come from factories, ships, or runoff from roads, lawns, and farms. Waterways also can be polluted when people dispose of wastes improperly. For example, excess water from streets and roads runs into storm drains during rainstorms. This water usually flows untreated into nearby waterways. Storm drains should never be used to dispose of used motor oil, paints, solvents, or other liquid wastes. These pollutants can kill aquatic plants, fish, frogs, insects, and the organisms they depend on for food.

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