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Memory Professor System

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Memory Professor System Summary

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Contents: Ebook
Author: Kit Stevenson
Official Website: memoryprofessor.com
Price: $29.99

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5 Minute Learning Machine Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Jack Singer
Official Website: www.5minutelearningmachine.com
Price: $27.00

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Black Belt Memory is a product aimed at helping the users have retentive memories in just 21 days. The methods are easy to use that the users can learn it at home. The only difference it has from other self-help program is the follow-up model it uses to track the user's progress. After the users have completed the course, they will get the chance to practice what they have learned by participating in a sort of quiz competition. This quiz competition will either make the designer give the user's certificate or ask the user's to go through the lessons again. This makes it fit for the users to understand it and make them follow the instructions given. The certification is simply a means to help the users stay on track but can do more than that. The users can frame the certificate, hang it on the wall for well-wishers to know. The product is perfect for adults and children over the age of five. It is not one that uses the regular rote memory type of recollection. It uses a systematic way of ensuring the users remember the details the user's need to remember. At the end of the program, the users are guaranteed that their brain will be 300% sharper. Read more...

Black Belt Memory Summary

Contents: Online Course
Creator: Ron White
Official Website: www.blackbeltmemory.shop

Working Memory and the Prefrontal Cortex Working Memory

Give the best estimate of expected encounter rates, while in a fluctuating environment, only the most recent encounters will be informative and previous experience should be devalued. Hirvonen et al.'s model agrees with this intuition. Retrieving information from memory and integrating it with current information about the environment is the domain of working memory (see chap. 2), and one structure thought to play a significant role in working memory is the prefrontal cortex.

Animal Behaviour and Floral Euolution

Important breakthroughs have recently been made in our understanding of the cognitive and sensory abilities of pollinators how pollinators perceive, memorize, and react to floral signals and rewards how they work flowers, move among inflorescences, and transport pollen. These new findings have obvious implications for the evolution of floral display and diversity, but most existing publications are scattered across a wide range of journals in very different research traditions. This book brings together for the first time outstanding scholars from many different fields of pollination biology, integrating the work of neuroethologists and evolutionary ecologists to present a multidisciplinary approach. Aimed at graduates and researchers of behavioral and pollination ecology, plant evolutionary biology, and neuroethology, it will also be a useful source of information for anyone interested in a modern view of cognitive and sensory ecology, pollination, and floral evolution.

Adaptations to Cave Life

Animals roosting or living in caves must adapt to cope with the unusual environment. Paramount for the cave-roosting vertebrates is the ability to find their way to and from their roosts at the correct time. Not surprisingly, the birds and bats display uncanny skill in memorizing the complex maze to and from their cave roosts. Pack rats use trails of their urine to navigate in and out of caves. Species using the twilight and transition zones can use the daily meteorological cycle for cues to wake and leave the cave. Those roosting in the deep zone may rely on accurate internal clocks to know when it is beneficial to leave their roost.

The Patch Departure Decision

Flowers visited before returning to the hive supports the assumption that honeybees maximize efficiency (net energy gain energy expenditure) rather than the more conventional currency of net energy gain (Schmid-Hempel et al. 1985 see also section 8.3). In order to respond to the travel time between flowers, foraging honeybees must monitor this variable in some way and then base their decision to cease foraging on their current estimate of travel time, stored in working memory. Memory for travel times between flowers is an important part of honeybee foraging.

Portable and Automatic Analyzers

As shown in Table 5.10.2, practically all organic and some inorganic vapors and gases can be monitored by these IR spectrometers. The advantage of the microprocessor-based operation is that the monitor is precalibrated for the analysis of over 100 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cited compounds. The memory capacity of the microprocessor is sufficient to accommodate another ten user-selected and user-calibrated gases. Analysis time is minimized because the microprocessor automatically sets the measurement wavelengths and parameters for any compound in its memory. A general scan for a contaminant in the atmosphere takes about 5 min, while the analysis of a specific compound can be completed in just a few minutes. The portable units are battery-operated for 4 hr of continuous operation and are approved for use in hazardous areas.

Lasting Changes in Neurons

Of learning in birds, mammals, and the sea slug Aplysia implicate protein kinase C (PKC), for example, in changes at the synapse, also known as synaptic plasticity (Micheau and Riedel 1999). Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ increases PKC activity. In the honeybee, PKC occurs in both the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes (Granbaum and Muller 1998 Hammer and Menzel 1995), but its role in conditioning of the proboscis extension response remains unclear. Repeated proboscis extension conditioning trials increase PKC in the antennal lobes, beginning 1 hour after conditioning and continuing for up to 3 days. Blocking PKC activation, however, does not affect initial acquisition of the PER (Grunbaum and Muller 1998). Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ may also act through other Ca2+-dependent kinases, such as Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV). Activation of this kinase by Ca2+ may be an important mechanism underlying long-term memory (see below). As noted earlier, elevated cAMP levels...

Converting the Memory Trace to the Engram

Studies of learning in Drosophila (Yin et al. 1994), the sea slug Aplysia (Bartsch et al. 1995), mice (Bourtchuladze et al. 1994), and rats (Lamprecht et al. 1997) confirm that CREB induces changes in long-term memory that depend on protein synthesis. In the honeybee, inhibition of protein synthesis does not disrupt learning measured 24 hours after training (i.e., learning that does not depend on protein synthesis), but does interfere with long-term changes measured 3 days after training (i.e., learning that does depend on protein synthesis Wustenberg et al. 1998).

The Prefrontal Cortex

Working memory is a system for temporarily holding and manipulating information that is currently in use (Baddeley 1986, 1998). Experimental work with primates and rats supports the idea that the prefrontal cortex the most anterior part of the mammalian brain serves working memory (e.g., Fuster 1997 Goldman-Rakic 1990). As one might suspect, two structures that neu-roscientists implicate in memory, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, have extensive reciprocal anatomical connections (Goldman-Rakic et al. 1984 Swanson 1982).

Recording from Neurons in the Prefrontal Cortex

The results discussed above show that when information relevant to the performance of an ongoing task must be kept active, the prefrontal cortex bridges the delay until the response can be performed. The prefrontal cortex, in other words, plays a role in working memory. Another approach to examining the function ofthe prefrontal cortex is direct recording ofthe electrical activity of neurons. Fuster (1973) performed the classic electrophysiological study of the prefrontal cortex during a task that required retaining information during a delay. Fuster made recordings from single neurons while monkeys performed a delayed response task. The monkey had to retrieve a piece of apple that it had seen hidden under one of two identical wooden blocks. The majority of neurons recorded in the prefrontal cortex altered their firing frequency as different events occurred during the trial. Some cells increased their firing frequency during exposure to the cues and again during the choice period...

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To baseline firing rates after the delay has ended (Fuster and Alexander 1971 Kojima and Goldman-Rakic 1982, 1984). Features such as color, position, or sound that are relevant to the task influence the activity of these neurons, but the pattern of neuronal activity is not specific to any one sensory modality (Bodner et al. 1996). The pattern of activity of these neurons seems to correspond to the activation of working memory, not to sensory modality or the response required for the task. Because the cue-specific differential firing of these prefrontal neurons occurs when the cue is no longer present, these cells take part in the internal representation of the cue. The level of neuronal activity during the delay has a direct and positive relationship to the number of correct responses the animal later makes (Watanabe 1986). Consistent with the results of these electrophysiological studies, Friedman and Goldman-Rakic (1994) have observed increased glucose utilization during spatial...

Sequential Ordering of Behavior

Together with its working memory function, the prefrontal cortex plays a role in the temporal organization of behavior. In addition to memory in delayed response tasks, the prefrontal cortex may be involved more generally in the temporal organization of behavior, serving the timing functions that are necessary for the sequential organization ofbehavior (Fuster 1985, 1991 Milner et al. 1985). Lesions of the prefrontal cortex cause impairments in a number of naturally occurring behaviors, such as nest building (Kolb and Whishaw 1983), male social behavior (de Bruin et al. 1983), and food hoarding (Kolb 1974). All of these behaviors involve actions that must be performed in the correct sequence. Rats with prefrontal cortex lesions can produce the individual components ofcomplex behavioral sequences, but they cannot perform the components in the correct order. These findings suggest that the timing and the sequential organization ofbehavior involve the prefrontal cortex, including...

Pollinator behavior that results in assortative mating

Among bouts across individuals (see Jones 1997 for methods). Behavioral constraints seem to be especially important in the quick succession of choices within a foraging bout, for which short-term memory may be more important than long-term memory (Chittka et al. 1999 but see Menzel, this volume). For this, analyses of the sequences of plants visited within foraging bouts are appropriate (Bateman 1951 Waser 1986 Jones

The Mimetic Flight Behavior of Butterflies

Much of the modern work on flight mimicry in tropical butterflies has been carried out in Central America starting with Chai's 22 study of butterfly predation by the specialist feeder, the rufous-tailed jacamar (Galbula ruficauda). These birds feed exclusively on flying insects in fact, they do not recognize prey that does not fly. Chai established that captive jacamars fed on a wide range of butterflies and that they could distinguish between palatable species (Papilio Morpho Charaxinae Brassolinae Satyrinae and most Nymphalinae) and the unpalatable species (Battus and Parides Papilionidae Diathreia and Callicore Nymphalinae Heliconiinae Acraeinae Ithomiinae Danainae and some Pieridae), most of which were members of Mullerian mimicry groups. Most of these were sight rejected. The birds were so adept that they could even distinguish between the very similar color patterns of some Batesian mimics and their models, although some mimics such as Papilio anchisiades were never taken by...

Evolutionary implications

(5) Plant traits increasing the risk of flower revisitation. Spatial memory or directional movement may be affected by some plant traits. For example, Redmond & Plowright (1996) found that bumble bees revisited artificial flowers more often in irregular than in uniform configurations. They showed in addition that the presence of landmarks significantly reduced flower revisits when bees had to fly between flowers, but had no effect when bees could walk between flowers. Also, Brown et al. (1997) suggested that spatial working memory capacity of honeybees is limited by their ability to discriminate among locations in close proximity. Therefore, inflorescence architecture (complex or close-packed arrangements of flowers, the absence of bract leaves, etc.) may shorten pollinators' visit sequences, mediated through the increased risk of flower revisitation.

Techniques For Behavioral Measurement

Simultaneous and continuous focal sampling of all individuals in a group might be the most accurate and informative combination of sampling and recording, but circumstances may render this combination unattainable. Technology is at hand to help. Computer-based event-recording software provides an automated string of actor, behavior (time), and modifiers (such as recipient of interaction and quality of interaction). Currently, memorizing the keyboard is the way to avoid taking one's eyes off the subjects, but voice recognition software may soon allow input of data spoken in the correct syntax. Various software packages already assist behavioral recording, and the most sophisticated, such as Noldus Observer, offer a variety of tools for manipulation and basic statistical analysis of the data and an easy Windows interface (Albonetti et al. 1992 Noldus Information Technology 1995). Noldus also performs sequential and nested analysis and allows simultaneous input from an alternative...

Generic Recipe for Applying the General Linear Model

The general linear model is not part of the traditional undergraduate curriculum for biology students. However, it can be taught at this level, and in doing so there are many advantages for the student. First, students learn unifying concepts rather than a sequence of apparently unrelated procedures. Students can see the relationship of one test to another rather than having to memorize a set of special procedures. For example, ANCOVA can be presented as minor variants of the same model rather than as two separate procedures, one for comparing slopes and one for statistical control of a regression variable. Remedies for recurring problems (e.g., heterogeneous variances) are presented once rather than several times in different guises. The model-based approach means that students can learn general remedies instead of specific remedies peculiar to individual tests. The mechanics of analysis are presented once rather than as a different procedure for each test. Students are able to...

Honeybee vision and floral displays from detection to closeup recognition

In a social insect such as the honeybee, the survival of the colony depends on the success of its foragers. The bee optimizes its foraging success by returning to flowers of the species at which it has previously found food. This so-called flower constancy (see Chittka et al. 1999 for references) is based on the bee's capacity to learn and memorize specific flower signals (Menzel et al. 1993 Menzel & M ller 1996 Menzel 1999 and this volume) and to discriminate among different species by their different signals.

Memory and Landscape

The memory of the landscape resides in our culture and is accumulated in the physical world. For instance, soil is the recent memory of bio-physical processes. A deep soil has a more long-term memory, and sedimentary rocks have a very old memory. Fragments of atmosphere can be detected inside the Antarctic ice pack, representing a memory of the time a thousand years ago when the ice pack first formed. A landscape is like a roof composed of tiles. Every tile is posed on the margin of a precedent tile. Often the evolution of the culture decouples patterns from processes, exposing the landscape to an apparent novelty. Like tiles allow water to flow, at the same time the landscape tiles allow the landscape processes to move forward. Memory is the accumulation of remnants of past processes not included in the reorganization of present-day processes. This distinction is not easily to be proposed, because there is a duality in the memory first, a new process starts using as its basis an old...

The Hippocampus

Many ofthe cognitive processes involved in foraging, including spatial memory, working memory, episodic and declarative memory, the formation of complex associations, and the integration of experience over time, to name form new episodic memories memories of everyday events or episodes but does not seem to impair procedural memory the ability to learn new skills and procedures. People with damage to the hippocampus can, for example, learn a new computer skill without any awareness ofwhere or when they learned it or even any recollection that they now possess this skill. Conflicting conclusions about the function of the hippocampus are probably the result of various researchers grasping different parts of what is clearly a complex beast. In this section, we will discuss two proposed cognitive functions ofthe hippocampus, spatial orientation and declarative memory, and describe the evidence that supports each of these ideas.

Declarative Memory

Neuroscientists have proposed many functions for the hippocampus in addition to spatial memory. One of these is a broader domain of memory, called declarative memory, a memory system that keeps a record of many kinds of experience, only a small part of which is spatial experience (Eichenbaum 2000 Squire 1992). Declarative memory is the directed recall of information. Recalling the provincial capital of Newfoundland, for example, draws on declarative memory. Declarative memory contrasts with procedural memory, in which experience also influences behavior, but which does not involve such directed recall of information. Riding a bicycle, for example, involves procedural but not declarative memory. The improvement that results from practice in bicycle riding is clearly a form of memory, but the effects of this kind of experience are not retrieved in the same directed manner in which declarative memory retrieves the city of St. John's. The effects of hippocam-pal damage in humans,...

Conclusions

It is a long journey from the patch departure decision of a bumblebee to the neural localization of working memory in the prefrontal cortex. We have examined the cellular and molecular mechanisms ofthe formation ofassocia-tions, two ofthe numerous proposed cognitive functions ofthe hippocampus, and the role of the prefrontal cortex in working memory. Much of the research in these areas has used natural components of foraging to investigate how the brain implements cognitive processes. The proboscis extension response of honeybees, the search for food by rats in a maze, and choice by primates among concealed food sites are all components of natural foraging, or very similar to components of natural foraging. It is no accident that feeding and foraging behavior figures prominently in the study of the nervous system feeding and foraging are things animals do reliably and repeatedly, even under artificial experimental conditions. Foraging requires a variety of cognitive competencies. We...

Summary

Although foraging models usually refrain from any commitment to specific causal mechanisms, it is generally recognized that learning, memory, perception, and other cognitive processes play a crucial role in foraging. One of the simplest forms of animal learning, classical conditioning, enables foragers to learn about environmental cues that predict the presence of food. The neural basis of classical conditioning has been examined in the honeybee. Neural pathways convey information from odor and sucrose receptors to the mushroom bodies ofthe honeybee brain. Intracellular second messenger systems respond to the co-occurrence of odor and sucrose signals, initiate gene transcription, and cause the long-lasting changes in neurons that are the basis of associative learning. The vertebrate hippocampus has been implicated in many ofthe cognitive processes that are essential to foraging. Neurophysio-logical and comparative research has addressed the role of the hippocampus in spatial...

Suggested Readings

(1997) is comprehensive, with data on many mammalian species, including humans and nonhuman primates. It presents a theory of the function of the frontal lobe, including the prefrontal cortex, in working memory, timing, attention, motor control, affect, and planning. The book covers comparative anatomy, neurotransmission, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, and recent imaging studies.

Different tasks

Of time, fly greater distances between flowers, and visit fewer flowers in a given time period. Schmitt (1980), for example, found that bumble bees visiting Senecio (Asteraceae) flowers typically visit near-neighbor plants, while butterflies frequently bypass neighbors and fly significantly greater distances between plants. Such differing patterns of flower visitation may in turn affect parameters such as speed of learning, degree of interference between learned associations, duration of memory, and timing of transfer between short- and long-term memory (Greggers & Menzel 1993 see Menzel, this volume), all of which are virtually unexplored for non-hymenopteran insect pollinators.

Synopsis

Foragers rely on a variety of cognitive abilities to locate or store food items. From the simplest phototaxis to a cognitive map, mobile foragers need some form of spatial cognition. Foragers use external cues, such as beacons, gradients, and arrays of landmarks, to orient and to memorize the location of food sources. Different species, and even males and females ofa single species, may use different frames of reference for their spatial orientation. Scatter-hoarding species face the additional problem of creating and relocating hundreds or thousands of cache sites, which could explain observed species differences in performance on abstract and naturalistic tasks measuring spatial memory. Social learning can also help a forager locate food by observation or communication.

Dependent way

Mechanistically, the link between visitation order and common-morph preference implies that short-term memory affects frequency dependence (Menzel 1999, this volume). The increase of frequency dependence with experience suggests that continued reinforcement on common morphs consolidates long-term memory, resulting in continued preference. Predators that develop search images while learning to distinguish cryptic prey from the background will display frequency dependence if those images interfere with each other (Dawkins 1971b). Although interference has been shown for short-term memory (Menzel 1979), the importance of interference for common-morph preference by pollinators is unclear. Why do rare unrewarding morphs receive more pollinator visits. Ultimately, this is expected as a consequence of efficient avoidance of empty flowers by pollinators. Bumble bees may learn to avoid unrewarding flowers by making a particular number of test visits (Heinrich 1975). If this mechanism applies,...

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