The Best Ways to Treat Lyme Disease

Lyme Strategies

This latest updated text, in digital eBook form and available for immediate download, has been expanded nearly eightfold over the original guide of 2004 in terms of the exact, step-by-step lue-print and essential information designed to maximize this protocol. Just some of the valuable information contained in this 193-page guide includes: How to do the protocol, including the exact, specific method or procedure that is critical to its success. Schedule chart, measurements guide, tips and recommendations. The basic elements of the protocol are actually five, not just salt and vitamin C what these are and why Understanding what a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (or Herx) is. Particular djunct items found to be extremely helpful and particular items for special issues. A Technical Section detailing why the protocol works (posited mechanisms), including scientific citations and and studies. The right salt versus wrong salt and why. the low-salt, no-salt myth and scientific truth. the historical, medicinal use of natural salt. Did you know salt was used to treat syphilis, caused by Lyme's bacterial cousin, in the 1800s? Why Vitamin C and what does it do? The protocol and specific body considerations (heart, adrenals, etc.) Key Characteristics of the Lyme bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi), including nearly 20 extraordinary mechanisms and features it uses to elude the immune and proliferate in the body

Lyme Strategies Summary

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Tick ecology and Lyme disease risk

Lyme disease is closely associated with local ecology (Fish, 1993 Gern and Falco, 2000). Therefore, understanding the dynamic nature of Lyme disease risk requires an understanding of the ecology of vector ticks, including their seasonal and annual activity patterns, as well as the ecology of B. burgdorferi with respect to ticks and reservoir hosts. There are four tick species that are primary vectors for Lyme disease I. scapu-laris ( I. dammini) (Oliver et al, 1993) in the eastern and midwestern US and Canada, I. pacificus in the western US, I. ricinus in Europe, and I. persulcatus in Eurasia (Gern and Falco, 2000). Due to the high prevalence of Lyme disease in the eastern US and the fact that suburbanization in the eastern US as it relates to Lyme disease risk is the primary focus of this chapter, we will use the life history of I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged tick or deer tick, as a model for our discussion of tick ecology.

Lyme disease risk and tick activity

Human risk for Lyme disease is a function of two important environmental factors seasonal weather and light conditions, which dictate the time of year each stage in the lifecycle is most active and the abundance of ticks in a given location. Although there are three active stages in the deer tick lifecycle, it is the nymphal tick that has the greatest impact on public health in terms of risk of Lyme disease. This is demonstrated by comparing the seasonal activity of nymphal and adult I. scapularis with the temporal distribution of Lyme disease cases. For example, in a study in Westchester County, New York, an endemic area for Lyme disease, there was a significant correlation between seasonal activity of nymphal I. scapularis and the onset of EM, the hallmark of early Lyme disease (Falco et al., 1999 see also Figure 5.5). In this study, 74.2 percent of all EM's The importance of nymphal I. scapularis in the epidemiology of Lyme disease is further supported by studying temporal changes...

Future strategies for Lyme disease prevention

Although the prospect for a new human Lyme disease vaccine remains, and research continues in that direction (Thomas and Fikrig, 2002), future efforts to prevent Lyme disease will likely move toward more efficient tick-control Not surprisingly, several approaches targeting white-tailed deer are under investigation. Application of insecticide directly to deer has shown promise in reducing the abundance of I. scapularis in the suburban environment. One such method uses a four-poster device - essentially a large central bin holding corn that spills out into two feeding troughs, one on each side of the corn bin. On the two corners of each trough are vertical posts that have been treated with the insecticide. As deer maneuver to feed from the trough, they rub their head and neck against the vertical posts and are passively treated with insecticide, typically a permethrin compound (Pound et al, 2000a, 2000b). This method has successfully reduced the abundance of host-seeking ticks by 69-100...

Historical distribution of Lyme disease vectors in the US

Since the late 1980s, three major foci of Lyme disease in the US have been identified and account for the vast majority of cases reported each year (Barbour and Fish, 1993). The most significant in terms of case numbers is in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions, followed by the upper midwestern region of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Disease transmission in both areas is due to the presence of I. scapularis. A third focus, encompassing northern California, Oregon, and Washington, is characterized by a transmission cycle involving a different vector, I. pacificus, the western black-legged tick, which has a relatively low level of infection with B. burgdorferi. I. pacificus feeds frequently on the western fence lizard (Sceloperus occidentalis), which is an incompetent reservoir for the spirochete (Lane et al., 1991), so transmission of the agent to ticks is infrequent. Furthermore, there is little overlap of cohorts (Padgett and Lane, 2001) during the tick's lifecycle - a trait that...

Lyme disease and the suburbs

Suburbanization has greatly altered the epidemiological landscape. The steady rise in human Lyme disease incidence in the northeast over the last three decades is related to landscape modification through suburbanization (Maupin et al., 1991 Barbour and Fish, 1993 Frank et al., 1998). Eastern deciduous forest communities were fragmented by suburban development, resulting in a habitat matrix that is ideal for deer and some small rodents, especially the white-footed mouse (Daily and Ehrlich, 1995). Although the net amount of forest has not changed significantly in the past two decades (Brownstein et al., 2003), continued building has created a higher number of forest patches interspersed with residential development. The proximity of humans, wildlife, and ticks in a habitat that is suitable for all three virtually ensures exposure of people to tick bites and the agents of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis (Falco and Fish, 1988a Ehrlich and Ehrlich, 2002)....

Lyme disease

The social ecology of Lyme disease is related to the migration of the population in developed nations to suburban areas (see Chapter 5). It is associated with the bite of the same species of deer tick as is the vector for babesiosis, and can cause an illness that affects many systems within the body. Despite a number of researchers looking for examples of Lyme disease transmitted by transfusion, none has been found and this is probably because it is present in blood and potentially capable of being transmitted by transfusion for only a very short period of time. There is one interesting case of an individual thought to have been positive for both Lyme disease and babesiosis whose blood donation transmitted only babesiosis but not Lyme disease (Cable et al, 1993 McQuiston et al, 2000). While transfusion-related cases have not been reported, public health agencies and the AABB are monitoring this disease because of the remote chance that it could affect transfusion safety. People with a...

Applications in Ecology

The black-legged tick is a major vector of Lyme disease, a debilitating and ultimately fatal disease of humans. In recent decades there has been a noticeable expansion of this tick's range, offering new opportunities for human infection. Lyme disease involves a spirochete bacterium that lives in its tick hosts, then spreads to a variety of mammal and bird hosts when they are bitten by a tick. Principal vectors for the tick are the white-tailed deer, white-footed mouse, and American robin. It would be possible to predict more accurately where the tick range is most likely to expand if it were known which of these hosts played the most active role in its dispersal as a joint function of the number of such hosts and the distance they are likely to disperse the bacterium (mice short, deer medium, robins long).

The Ecological Community

All of the other shrub species listed above are not fire dependent and produce seeds that germinate soon after dispersal however, successful reproduction is relatively uncommon. This is because their seedlings are very sensitive to summer drought and because there are a number of herbivores that live in the chaparral understory and prey on seedlings and other herbaceous vegetation. These include deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes), and brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani). Both rodents (mice and rats) are nocturnal however, evidence of woodrats, or packrats as they are sometimes called, is very evident in many older chaparral stands because of the several foot high nests of twigs they make under the shrub canopy. These animals not only affect community structure by consuming most seedlings and herbaceous species, but also are important vectors for disease and other health threats. For example, deer mice are host to the deadly hanta-virus and woodrats are a...

Bruce A Wilcox Duane J Gubler and HF Pizer

The first evidence of the re-emergence of infectious disease occurred in the 1970s, but the process greatly accelerated in the latter two decades of the twentieth century. Old diseases that were once effectively controlled began to reappear in epidemic form - for example, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile Virus, epidemic polyarthritis, yellow fever, measles, plague, cholera, tuberculosis, leishmani-asis, malaria, etc. In addition, numerous newly recognized diseases began to cause epidemics, such as HIV AIDS, the hemorrhagic fevers (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, hantavirus, Crimean-Congo, arenaviruses, dengue and yellow fever), avian influenza, Hendra and Nipah encephalitis, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and others. In addition to those factors mentioned above, resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics, drug resistance in malaria parasites, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, new medical technology (e.g. organ transplantation) and...

Richard C Falco Gary P Wormser and Thomas J Daniels

Since World War II, the massive expansion of suburbs has been the way that metropolitan areas grow. As suburbs were created, lawns and parks replaced forests and farms, and entire neighborhoods were built into woodlots. However, the exodus from the nation's older cities to previously unspoiled lands has come at a cost. The suburbs, with their typically wooded properties and increasing human population, have become an important environment for interaction between people and arthropod vectors, particularly ticks. In the United States, the emergence of Lyme disease provides the archetypal example ofjust such a process. Lyme disease was unheard of in the United States before 1977, and likely would have gone unrecognized for many more years if not for the efforts of two mothers living in suburban towns in Connecticut. They independently reported what appeared to be outbreaks of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, sometimes associated with a rash, to the Connecticut State Health Department in...

B burgdorferi in host animals and ticks

I, scapularis has a wide host range, with immature stages feeding on over 30 species of mammals, 49 species of birds, and several species of lizards (Magnarelli et al, 1986 Anderson, 1988). A few relatively common species, such as the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), may feed the majority of individual ticks (Wilson, 1998). This generalist granivore (Nupp and Swihart, 1996) is common in woodlands of the eastern US. Its significance in the transmission cycle of tick-borne pathogens lies in its role as a reservoir host that is capable of becoming infected with B, burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti from ticks that feed on it, maintaining the infections for at least several weeks, and transmitting the pathogens to new ticks it picks up in the environment (Piesman and Spielman, 1979). Although white-footed mice are considered the principal reservoir for B, burgdorferi in nature (Levine et al,, 1985 Donahue et al,, 1987), other animals can serve to infect...

Agriculture landuse patterns and deer

White-tailed deer in the eastern half of the US underwent four distinct population phases from 1500 to 1900 (McCabe and McCabe, 1997) that coincided with the landscape changes made by a growing and mobile human population in the US. These phases included a massive harvest of deer from 1500 to 1800, a regrowth of the white-tailed deer herds as harvest limits were imposed from 1800 to 1865, the exploitation era from 1850 to 1900 when deer were under extreme hunting pressure, and a period of regrowth of the deer population that began in 1900 and continues to this day (McCabe and McCabe, 1997). The emergence of Lyme disease is associated with this last phase. The key to understanding how Lyme disease became the most important vector-borne illness in North America lies in the realization that human-mediated changes in land-use patterns impact how wildlife reservoirs and disease vectors interact with humans sharing that land. Lyme disease occurs wherever the vector is abundant.

Environmental and behavioral factors impacting risk

On the local level, risk for Lyme disease is not homogeneous. Even in areas considered endemic, nymphal tick abundance can vary significantly. For example, in New York State, which has reported more Lyme disease cases over the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004 than any other state in the US (CDC, 2006a), tick abundance can vary significantly not only within the state (Daniels et al, 1998) but also within a county (Falco and Fish, 1992 Falco et al., 1995), and even between neighborhoods (Maupin et al, 1991). Such disparity in the distribution of ticks is likely due to several factors, including host activity patterns and changes in microhabitat that impact tick survival, both of which are strongly influenced by the local landscape features. In the northeastern US, risk for Lyme disease based on landscape features can be largely divided into two categories residential and recreational. The peridomestic nature of Lyme disease was first described in 1988, when studies in southern New York...

The limitations of personal protection and public education

Personal protection measures have long been recommended for the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. Such measures are typically divided into three categories behavior modification, repellent use, and prompt removal of attached ticks (White, 1993 see also Table 5.1). Lyme disease prevention and educational programs in endemic areas have stressed the use of such personal protective measures (Dennis, 1995 CDC, 2000), and advice regarding personal protection against tick bites has sometimes been the major focus of Lyme disease prevention efforts on the part of public health officials (Williams et al, 1986 Sigal and Curran, 1991). This advice serves to shift responsibility for Lyme disease prevention from the governmental health agencies to the individual, in effect minimizing the government's role in actively reducing Lyme disease incidence. However, reliance on personal protection as the cornerstone of prevention efforts is problematic. While it is likely that...

The controversy over chemical use and deer control

The most effective way for a suburban homeowner to reduce risk for tick bites significantly has been, and still is, the environmental application of insecticides (Barbour and Fish, 1993 Mount, 1993 Gern and Falco, 2000). However, there has been reluctance on the part of residents and some public health officials to advocate and implement chemical control due to environmental concerns (Stafford, 1991 Sonenshine, 1993 Golaine, 1992). The aversion to the use of chemicals, even those that have been approved by the federal Environmental Protection Agency for use in residential areas, has had a negative impact on efforts to prevent Lyme disease in endemic areas. However, due to the high prevalence of Lyme disease in suburban areas of the northeast, the benefit of reduced tick abundance through annual insecticide applications to lawns may outweigh potential environmental concerns (Barbour and Fish, 1993). Although chemical control continues to be the most effective way of killing I....

Dynamics of Acorn Production by Five Species of Southern Appalachian Oaks

The management implications of fluctuations in acorn crop size underscore the need to better understand their patterns, causal factors, and predictability (both within a year and long term). Acorn yield has a demonstrable influence on the population dynamics of many wildlife species, both game (Eiler et al. 1989, Wentworth et al. 1992) and nongame (Hannon et al. 1987, Koenig and Mumme 1987, Smith and Scarlett 1987, Elkinton et al. 1996, Wolff 1996, McShea 2000). Wolff (1996) suggests that acorns function as a keystone resource in forest community dynamics, by influencing small mammal prey populations. Indeed, acorn crop size has a far-reaching influence on ecosystems. White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations, which are directly influenced by acorn crop size, affect gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations (Elkinton et al. 1996) and even the prevalence of Lyme disease (Jones et al. 1998). Also, oak regeneration has been shown to increase following large acorn crops...

Ecological Effects of Hunting

Damage vegetation, threaten other species, or threaten human health and safety. Managers also can use hunting to control a wildlife population's density in efforts to minimize risks associated with wildlife-related diseases (e.g., Lyme disease, bovine brucellosis). In 2005, hunting became a major tool to fight degradation of saltwater marshes caused by growing populations of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) along the Hudson Bay. Some groups assert reintroducing predators would achieve the same benefits as hunting. Such reintroductions, however, prove politically problematic. Further, considerable evidence suggests prey species typically control predator abundance rather than vice versa.

Vector Borne Diseases with Structured Population Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics During the Maturation Phase

Ticks can act as the vector for certain diseases, notably Lyme disease. Bluetongue is a midge-borne disease that can affect all ruminants with sheep being the most severely affected. Cattle act as an important reservoir species. Bluetongue appears to have originated in South Africa but has been reported in many European countries (including as far north as the Netherlands and Belgium), in the USA and in British Columbia and other places. Northern Europe is currently at the limits of the climatic conditions favorable for the spread of the disease (13-35 C) but climate change has the potential to change this. Since midges can be carried considerable distances by wind, it has been speculated that, in areas where bluetongue occurs only sporadically, it originates from the carriage by wind of midges from distant endemic areas.

Ecological Consequences of Oak Masting

Interaction of Rodents and Deer with Ticks and Lyme Disease Rodents and deer are crucial hosts for ticks of the genus Ixodes, which are the vectors of the Lyme-disease agent, a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi). Lyme disease is a zoonotic disease, which means that the bacterial pathogen is maintained in wildlife populations and occasionally is transmitted to humans. Unlike some other vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, humans are irrelevant to the maintenance of the Lyme-disease enzootic cycle and only become involved accidentally when ticks, which normally feed on wildlife, attack people. Borrelia infections in wildlife hosts, including rodents and deer, appear to be rather benign, resulting in no obvious symptoms and having no detectable effect on survival or reproduction. Because of the mammalian hosts' role in feeding Lyme disease is by far the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and is increasingly common in Europe. Over the past decade in the...

Factors affecting microparasite population biology

The two basic modes of transmission are (i) vertical, in which the disease is passed from mother to offspring (cytomegalovirus and hepatitis B virus) and (ii) horizontal, in which diseases are passed from one individual to another in the environment. Most infections disease organisms are passed through the horizontal method, although some disease organisms can be passed both vertically and horizontally (hepatitis B). These include direct and indirect transmission. Direct transmission includes (i) close-contact diseases (common cold, influenza, measles) (ii) sexual-contact diseases (hepatitis B virus, HIV, syphilis) and (iii) contaminative-contact diseases (cholera, tetanus, typhoid). Indirect-contact diseases include those that involve transmission from one animal host to another (malaria, rabies, Lyme disease, or the plague) or via needles (HIV or hepatitis B). Human and animal borne or transmitted diseases have been the hardest to control, just as macroparasitic diseases with...

Stability of Community Variables

Diversity may dampen the spread of insects or pathogens that could threaten some species, hence disrupting community structure. For example, the diversity of pines and hardwoods in the southern United States reduces spread of southern pine beetle populations (Schowalter and Turchin 1993). Ostfeld and Keesing (2000) found that the number of human cases of Lyme disease, caused by the tick-vectored spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, declined with species richness of small mammals and lizards but increased with species richness of ground-dwelling birds (Fig. 10.10). These data indicated that disease epidemiology may depend on the diversity of reservoir hosts, but disease incidence generally should decline with increasing dilution of reservoir hosts by nonhosts.

Parasites And Diseases Of Weasels

The best source of detailed information on this subject is a recent review commissioned by the New Zealand Department of Conservation (McDonald & Lariviere 2001), as part of its intensive program to develop a means of biological control of stoats (Chapter 13). In general, weasels are susceptible to various diseases, such as tularemia, canine distemper, Aleutian disease of mink, rabies, murine (but not ovine) sarcosporidiosis, and bacterial infections caused by Bartonella sp. and Borrelia burgdorferi. Another bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter mustelae, is widespread in both ferrets and stoats (Forester et al. 2003). Histological signs of some forms of disease in wild stoats in Britain have been described (McDonald et al. 2001), but practically nothing is known about the incidence or effects of any diseases and parasites on wild weasels of any species.

Herbivorous mammals and birds

Rainforest Herbivores

Deer are also host to the ticks that transmit Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria that bring about skin changes, flu-like symptoms and joint inflammation in humans. Though normally found on deer (see Section 4.4.3), these ticks can also infest dogs and humans. Though most prominent in the USA and first recognized at Old Lyme, Connecticut, in 1975, Lyme disease is also a problem in many parts of Europe.

Ecological and Economic Significance

river blindness (a nematode transmitted by blackflies), and sleeping sickness (a try-panosome, transmitted by tsetse). Tens, perhaps hundreds of millions of people have died from these diseases over the past millennium alone. In South America, as many as 50,000 people die each year from Chagas's disease, another type of trypanosome, but one transmitted by blood-feeding triatomine assassin bugs. In areas of heavy infestation, the louse Pediculus humanus is a major vector of epidemic typhus. Ticks are important vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (caused by a Rickettsia), Lyme disease (a Borellia spiro-chaete), Tularemia (a bacterium, Francisella), and others. Epidemics have not been entirely tropical one of the most devastating plagues in history was the bubonic plague, or black death of medieval Europe, caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) transmitted by Xenop-sylla fleas from rats. Despite intensive efforts to control these diseases through vaccines or extermination of the...

Case Study System

Rodents in the family Muridae, which include many of the mice and rats worldwide, harbor dozens of pathogens and parasites that are capable of infecting humans and causing disease. Entries in the list of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens include numerous viruses such as several arenaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (Lassa fever, Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fevers), several hantaviruses that cause a variety of mild to severe human illnessess (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), monkeypox virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Rickettsial diseases that canbe transmitted from rodents to humans include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly ehrlichiosis), murine typhus, and Rickettsial pox. Other bacterial diseases in which the pathogen proliferates in rodents include Lyme disease, bartonellosis, plague, and tularemia. Finally, rats and mice can act as zoonotic hosts for protozoal parasites, including...

Clinical picture

The clinical picture of Lyme disease can be quite complex, consisting of the early skin manifestation known as erythema migrans (EM), as well as potentially more serious sequelae that result from hematogenous dissemination of the spirochete (Wormser, 2006). The more serious clinical sequelae involve the joints, nervous system, and or heart (Nadelman and Wormser, 1998 Steere, 2001 Stanek and Strle, 2003). Knowledge of the broad clinical spectrum of Lyme disease is an essential component for proper diagnosis and, consequently, effective treatment.

Conclusions

As we have seen, the proliferation of suburban development and fragmented landscapes in the northeastern and midwestern US has generated an ideal habitat for people emigrating from the cities, for commensal animal species such as deer that proliferate in the presence of humans, and for the parasites those animals host. This mixture of large numbers of vectors and people brings with it an increased potential for diseases such as Lyme disease, babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Cases of Lyme disease are on the rise throughout the nation, notably from regions that have experienced similar alterations of landscape, have rapidly growing deer herds, and are becoming increasingly subur-banized (Spielman et al., 1993 Wormser et al., 2007).

Bacterial Diseases

Two newly recognized vector-borne bacterial diseases, Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, and ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia ewingui, have emerged as important public health problems in the past three decades (Dumler et al. 2007 Steere et al. 2004). Both have small rodents as their natural vertebrate reservoir host, with hard ticks as their principal vectors. Both diseases are found primarily in temperate regions of the world, where emergence has been associated with environmental change. Figure 1 shows the dramatic increase in reported cases of Lyme disease in the United States since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began surveillance in 1982. The increased transmission in the United States is directly related to reforestation of the northeastern United States, allowing the mouse and deer populations to increase unchecked, which in turn has allowed the tick population to increase. A final factor...

Ehrlichiosis

First discovered in 1994, human ehrlichiosis (HE) is a bacterial infection caused by several types of rickettsiae that spread by tick vectors from dogs and other animals to humans. Like Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis is occurring in a context of widening suburban sprawl in North America, Europe, and Japan. Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria invade and kill white blood cells. There are two types of ehrlichiosis human granulocytic (HGE) and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). The threat to the blood supply appears to be primarily from HGE. From 1986 to 1997, there were only 449 cases of HGE reported in the United States. Symptoms include relatively mild and self-limited fever, headache, and malaise. However, 10-20 percent of people with HGE go on to suffer encephalitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and opportunistic infections, and up to 5 percent of infections may be fatal. Treatment with antibiotics such as tetracylines is effective. The incidence of HGE is not well understood...

Summary

Ostfeld. 2003. Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology 17 (1) 267-272. Allen, A. P., J. H. Brown, and J. F. Gillooly. 2002. Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic- LoGiudice, K., R. S. Ostfeld, K. A. Schmidt, and F. Keesing. 2003. The ecology of infectious disease Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 (2) 567-571. Ostfeld, R. S., and F. Keesing. 2000. Biodiversity and disease risk The case of Lyme disease. Conservation Biology 14 (3) 722-728.

Mechanisms

Furthermore, I argue, certain pathogens constitute significant and perhaps imminent threats to security, whereas other agents do not. For example, the re-emergence of a devastating H1N1 influenza virus, which in 1918 killed 50 million people, crippled armies, destabilized economies, and contributed to sclerotic governance, surely constitutes a direct threat to all countries. Globalization may, in fact, result in a pandemic of even greater scope and perhaps even greater lethality. On the other end of the spectrum is Lyme disease, which is endemic, is not transmissible from human to human, and often can be treated by antibiotic prophylaxis. I find it inconceivable to argue that Lyme disease constitutes a threat to the security of any polity. The following criteria constitute benchmarks for evaluating whether a pathogen constitutes a security threat to a given sovereign state

Masting

Infection Holes Hand Caused Insect

Oaks, like beeches and ashes, are also masting trees, though in some species their acorns take 2 years to develop, although those ofthe white oak group develop in one. Their mast years do not necessarily coincide with those of beech. In Britain, moderate acorn crops of pedunculate oak Quercus robur and sessile oak Q. petraea occur at intervals of 3-4 years compared with 2-3 years in beech even in years of general failure there can be abundant seed in some areas. Years in which there are uniformly and exceptionally heavy crops over considerable areas are not more frequent than every 6 or 7 years in southern England (Jones, 1959), but still more frequent than the 5-12 year periodicity seen in beech. The common pattern in masting species is for seed production to be more uniform between trees in years of high seed production. Abundant crops produced by isolated trees suggest that cross-pollination is not essential to oak. Although the underlying reasons are not fully understood, they are...

Arthropods

Artr Podes Crust Ceos

Ticks and mites are the most abundant arachids and the most important from an economic and medical viewpoint. They attach to plants and animals, puncturing their surface to suck out fluids or blood. Besides the direct harm this causes, they are the most important insect disease vector after mosquitoes. They spread Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans, as well as many cattle diseases.