Real Masculinity and Manhood
It is possible to see the craving for improving the Thames as linked in part to the identities of the men who administered the river. Modernity has demanded more control of the inner selves of its inhabitants, and in eighteenth-century Europe new types of masculinity developed that were more suited to the new demands being made on men (Connell 1993). The principal change was to a more rigid control of the self, a change represented by outraged contemporaries as a triumph of the sexless over the blunt physicality of traditional manliness (Brunstrom 2001 47).
Pathway, resulting in interference with the synthesis of testosterone in the testes of male rat fetuses. The consequence of a decrease in testosterone during the fetal period of masculinization is that normal mascu-linization, which occurs in response to testosterone, does not occur. Virtually every aspect of development of a masculine phenotype is disrupted by these phtha-lates in addition to shortened AGD, the penile and urethral development are abnormal, resulting in an increased frequency of hypospadias (a genital malformation in which the urethral opening is improperly located), and incomplete descent of the testes (cryptorchidism), testes are abnormally small, and other reproductive organs are abnormal. Three phthalates (DEHP, DBP, and BzBP) have been shown to down-regulate expression of the insl3 (insulin-like hormone 3) gene, which plays a critical role in gubernacular development and thus normal testicular descent. The cluster of morphological and functional changes induced...
After this refresher ofgenetic terms, we can have a closer look at behavior in this context. As already mentioned above, there never is a gene for behavior. Genetic differences between individuals certainly exist, and also affect behavior. But the environment in which a certain gene is expressed, both the internal one, for example, the hormonal or the nutritional state that the animal is in, and the external one, such as the social situation, level ofenviron-mental complexity, or other factors, have an important influence. In rodents, the position of an embryo in the uterus is of tremendous importance for his her later behavioral strategies. Female embryos between two males, for example, later in life behave more masculine in terms ofterritorial behavior, marking behavior, aggression - at least in Mongolian gerbils male embryos between two sister embryos later on become more philo-patric, tend to stay with their mothers, help them rear new offspring, etc.
Within traditional western patriarchies, a reason nature dualism underlies dominant logics. Reason is seen to be radically different and morally superior to nature. Other dualisms are then based on this fundamental dualism, and whatever is associated with reason is seen as morally superior to whatever is associated with nature. Ecological feminists have concentrated on dualized pairs such as masculine feminine, civilized primitive, human nature, light dark, and mental manual.