Composting

Composting is the active process of converting organic material to more stabilized forms of C through the action of microorganisms. Specifically, composting is the biological decomposition of wastes consisting of organic substances of plant or animal origin under controlled conditions to a state sufficiently stable for storage and utilization (Diaz et al., 1993). Compost as a product can be used in gardens, in nurseries, and on agricultural land. With respect to management of organisms,...

Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture strives to integrate human, environmental, and economically sustainable production systems. The term organic does not necessarily refer to the types of inputs to the system but more to the holistic interaction of the plants, soil, animals, and humans in the system. Organic agriculture management promotes maintaining SOM levels for soil fertility, providing plant nutrients through micro-bial decomposition of organic materials, and control of pests, disease, and weeds with...

Nematode Extraction Techniques

Soil Fecal Pellets Fauna

Nematodes may be extracted by a variety of techniques, either active or passive in nature. The principal advantage of the oldest, active method, namely the Baermann funnel method, is that it is simple, requiring no sophisticated equipment or electricity. It is based on the animal's movement and gravity. Samples are placed on coarse tissue paper, on a coarse mesh screen, and then placed in the cone of a funnel and immersed in water. After crawling through the moist soil and filter paper, the...

Models Of Nonc Nutrient Elements

Nutrient cycles in soil are tightly coupled through the nutrient demands of the microbial biomass during decomposition. For this reason, several of the C-centric multicompartmental models of SOM dynamics are able to model nutrient elements such as N, P, and S (Table 16.3). Models that describe the dynamics of FIGURE 16.8 The structure of the ANIMO N submodel for soil nitrogen dynamics (with permission from Wu and McGechan, 1998). FIGURE 16.8 The structure of the ANIMO N submodel for soil...