+ CO2 + 0.5O2 + HOH


+ CH2O


electrons released in Eq. [16] (2 moF1 of N) than in Eq. [14] (6 moF1 of N). Because NO2 oxidation yields little energy, the ratio of NO2 oxidized/C fixed is 5:1 (Eq. [19]), whereas it is only 1.5:1 for NH+ oxidation (Eq. [18]) and the corresponding ratio for S0 oxidation is 1.04:1 (Eq. [12]). Comparing S oxidation with N oxidation, it is also seen that more energy is released during oxidation of S0 to SO4~ than in oxidizing NH+ to NO2. This is not due to the different number of electrons involved, because each oxidation removes 6e~ from the element donating them. The difference here lies in the free energy change and associated potential developed for each redox couple and the corresponding difference in location at which the e~ and H+ enter the respiratory chain.

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