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Niche exclusion, high reproduction rates, nutrient uptake, iron-chelating compounds

Antibiosis Bacteria

Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Agrobacterium

Inhibition by production of antimicrobial compounds, e.g., HCN, oomycin A, 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol, zwittermycin, phenazine 1-carboxylic acid, pyrrolnitrin, agrocin 84

Talaromyces, Penicillium

Inhibition by production of antimicrobial compounds, e.g., glioviron, gliotoxin, hydrogen peroxide, penicillin

Induced resistance

Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Pythium

Biochemical changes in plant cell walls that are induced by physical or biochemical agents, e.g., siderophores, chitinases, peroxidase, lipopolysaccharides, phytoalexins, ethylene, salicylic acid

Mycoparasitism

Verticillium, Trichoderma, Coniothyrium

The process of mycoparasites is to sense host, direct growth, contact, recognize, attach, penetrate, and exit; they produce cell-wall-degrading lytic enzymes, chitinases, (1,3-glucanases, cellulases, proteases

The production of antimicrobial metabolites is one of the most studied aspects of biocontrol. Antibiotics produced by a wide range of bacteria and fungi include pyrrolnitrin, phycocyanin, 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol xanthobactin, and zwittermycin A.

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