use light as an energy source; in contrast, chemotrophs use chemical forms of energy. These fundamental groups may be subdivided into organotrophs, for which the electron source is organic; lithotrophs, for which the electron source is inorganic; or aquatrophs, for which it is water. Organisms that use an organic form of C are referred to as heterotrophs; those that use CO2 as C source are called autotrophs. Most heterotrophs are chemoorganotrophs (e.g., Pseudomonas spp., but some such as Rhodospirillaceae are chemophototrophs). Most autotrophs are chemolithotrophs or photolithotrophs. Some, such as the H2-oxidizing bacteria (6H2 + CO2 + 2O2 ^ CH2O + 5H2O), are facultative chemolithotrophs capable of growing on carbohydrates under aerobic conditions (see Gottschalk, 1986).
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