Mind Of A Millionaire
We can see the relevance of imperfect detection and spatial sampling by a formal description of the origin of variance in observations. Suppose that a population is composed of a spatially-indexed collection of subpopulations, of sizes Ni, N2, ,. Suppose we sample the populations and observe nj individuals at location i. The 'observation variance' is the variation in nj conditional on Nj. That is, the variance in the observed counts under repeated sampling of the same population - i.e., holding Nj fixed. This is a function of the sampling method typically, such that the better the method (more money and more time), then the closer nj is to Nj. One common way in which this source of variation is manifest is in terms of the detection probability parameter of a binomial distribution, as described in the next subsection. The second source of variation that is relevant to some inference problems is the variation in Nj across 'replicate' populations, or spatial sample units. This source of...
For a host species because parasites often have short generation times, and are therefore likely to be able to evolve rapidly to meet any barrier before hosts can try out a different approach. Of course, it is not just hosts that face the Red Queen. Employees periodically get offered pay rises but the value of this increase almost inevitably gets eaten away by inflation, so while there is more money in peoples' pockets from one year to the next, they rarely become substantially richer. Any form of antagonistic coevolution, including competition, can in theory set up a Red Queen effect but it is with hosts and parasites that the name has become most closely associated.
Worldwide, wetlands are estimated to provide many billions of dollars in services each year. They are recognized by the international treaty, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, and regulated by domestic law in many countries. Nonetheless, they have historically undergone widespread losses in favor of other land uses worldwide, 50 of wetlands are estimated to have been lost since 1900.
The consequences of one or the other act or word on the community and its environment. In no case, except if looking into the crystal ball of a few marketing wizards, can the role of the consumer extend beyond reacting to a positive or negative situation he or she is subjected to. The consumer is like a boxer, always waiting for an adversary to throw him or her a hard uppercut before reacting. The power of the consumer is far from representing a democratic overhang. At best it represents a limit, potentially protective against the drift of global capitalism. The issue is therefore not simply to know how to appropriately address the consumer in order to make money and coexist alongside large commercial groups. It is indeed necessary go beyond this aspect to besiege public space, to act instead of react. As Marc Jacquemain so accurately wrote, 'A society that builds itself upon the basis of consumers' reactions is less and less capable of analysing its collective aims' (Jacquemain, 2002...
The second, more unconventional, piece of synergy originated from the social stigma associated with foot odour. Rather than focusing on the composition of foot odour, we searched information available from the pharmaceutical industry, which has multi-million dollar efforts to develop products to quench foot odour. It was there that we found the initial links to certain aromas of cheeses closely resembling foot odour. The Dutch word tenenkaas , used to describe strong foot odour, and literally meaning toes-cheese then led us to evaluate the attractiveness of pinhead quantities of various smelly cheeses in our windtunnel olfactometer. We subsequently incriminated Limburger cheese as highly attractive to the African malaria vector An. gambiae (Knols and De Jong 1996). At that stage we were oblivious as to why we could attract a highly anthropophilic African malaria mosquito to a Dutch dairy product.
It is estimated that at least 4000 foreign plant species (not including crop plants) and 2300 animal species have become established in the U.S., as well as hundreds of animal and plant pathogens. About 15 are nuisance species (Office of Technology Assessment 1993) and the effort to eradicate them costs U.S. taxpayers billions of dollars each year (the estimated annual cost in 1999 was 123 billion). This cost does not include the incalculable effects invasive plants and animals have on native ecosystems such as local extinction of species that are not of economic value (Simberloff 1996).
Thinning is an important aspect of commercial forestry as it promotes the growth of the remaining trees, gives intermediate financial returns and may increase the total yield of usable timber over the life of the stand. There are three major factors in a thinning regime. Thinning intensity is the rate at which timber is removed per year e.g. 8 m3 ha-1 y-1. Thinning yield, on the other hand, is the actual timber volume removed in any one thinning. For a thinning cycle (time between one thinning and the next) of 5 years, the thinning yield would be 40 m3 ha-1 in this case. If thinning intensity is low, stands of normal initial spacing become so overstocked that cumulative production of usable timber is reduced and suppressed trees die before harvesting. If thinning intensity is high it enables the remaining trees to increase in diameter more rapidly than if the stand is left unthinned, but they do not use the extra growing space fully in cases of excessive thinning. So either under- or...
As a direct result, in 1999 the New Zealand government accepted the argument that only an extensive, nationally funded campaign could protect endangered ground and hole-nesting birds from stoats (Hackwell & Bertram 1999). It therefore granted NZ 6.6 million to instigate a 5-year program to find more cost-effective and sustainable approaches to stoat control. The new funding stimulated an explosion of new research, as summarized in the annual reports of the Stoat Technical Advisory Group and published by the Department of Conservation (Murphy & Fechney 2003). For a short period, far more money was being spent on stoat research there than in any other country in the world, for example, NZ 1,352,000 in 2000-2001 (Parkes & Murphy 2003).
People depend on biodiversity for healthful, sustainable agricultural systems. Biodiversity is the ultimate source of all cultivated plants and domesticated animals, and it provides essential assistance in maintaining crops and pastureland. Farmers save billions of dollars each year thanks to the services of pollinators, microbes that help create productive soil, and natural predators that reduce the need for pesticides.
Special problems are involved in the regulation of trade and commerce in living animals and plants as well as in the products derived from them. Demands of wealthy nations of certain animal and plant products create severe problems in less affluent countries. The demand for fur and skin of rare animal species is artificially created in fashion centers of the world. Prices paid by wealthy people for these items often exceed the lifetime income of the most people in the countries from which leopards, crocodiles, tigers and other wild species come. Poachers try to obtain these animals even inside national parks and reserves. For each animal
The movement of women into the workforce has also been linked to increases in the rate of divorce (Heer and Grossbard-Schectman, 1981 Corley and Woods, 1991 Davanzo and Rahman, 1993). Indeed, the incidence of divorce per 1000 married women aged 14 and over increased from 9.2 in 1960 to 20.3 in 1975 (Bureau of the Census, 1976). As a result of the increasing divorce rate, the proportion of sexually experienced, unmarried adults also increased (Kinsey et al., 1953). The increasing prevalence of divorce, the growing number of educated women, and the increasing accessibility of financial independence were all slowly altering the traditional landscape of sexual behavior and disease.
The first substantive water pollution legislation in the United States, the Water Pollution Control Act, was passed in 1948. In 1956, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), provided the first long-term control of water pollution. The act has been amended several times. A key amendment in 1972 establishes a national goal of zero discharge by 1985. This concept refers to the complete elimination of all water pollutants from navigable waters of the United States. This amendment also called upon the EPA to establish effluent limitations for industries and make money available to construct sewage treatment plants. The amendments in 1977 direct the EPA to examine less common water pollutants, notably toxic organic compounds.
Weather systems act as models for the process of weather forecasting - the attempt to predict the weather of a place for the next few hours or days. The U.S. federal government funds billions of dollars to the National Weather Service, which has four functions to provide severe weather warnings, weather observations and forecasting, education, and aviation briefings. Along with the general forecasts broadcast on television and radio and published in the newspapers, the Weather Service provides specialized reports to such people as farmers and pilots.
There are also enormous economic costs associated with invasive species. In the USA, for example, billions of dollars are spent every year on controlling the damage inflicted by invaders. This includes keeping waterways clear of such plants as Sri Lankan hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and Central American water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), controlling or eradicating outbreaks of European and Asian gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) in forests, and managing populations of the virulent Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus). The tremendous biological and economic costs of invasive species around the world highlight the importance of detecting and controlling invaders and possibly preventing future outbreaks.
Ecologists view invasive species as one of the worst environmental problems facing the conservation of natural areas, because invasive species lower species richness and function. At the same time, invasive species cause much human suffering and economic loss. The approach to eliminating invasive species can be improved by a better understanding of the various types of invasive species, and the scientific hypotheses surrounding their ability to invade novel environments. Despite the billions of dollars spent each year, invasive species are difficult if not impossible to eliminate after they have established. Various methods of eliminating plant species from natural communities are described in this review. An increased understanding of the nature of invasive species including their genetic relationship to their progenitors, hypotheses regarding their invasive qualities, and effective approaches for invasive species elimination are all sorely needed. Volunteers can help in the invasive...
If the characters were sent out to retrieve Konomiko, and succeeded, the NIS will pay them. The fee is likely to depend on how valuable the characters think Konomiko is. If they know she is an engineered brainchild, they can extort considerably more money from the NIS. She is worth at least 2,000.000 scrip to the NIS, but they are more likely to have the characters killed and Konomiko captured by another team than pay that much.
Recent experimental evidence for the importance of reputation in facilitating cooperation has come from an analysis of the contributions to an 'honesty box' for drinks in a university departmental coffee room.74 Bateson and colleagues looked at contributions to the box when images (always posted above the recommended price list) of a pair of eyes were alternated on a weekly basis with images of flowers. The amount of milk consumed turned out to be the best indicator of total consumption, but remarkably almost three times more money was paid per litre in weeks when there were eyes portrayed, compared to when there were flowers portrayed.74 Of course this experiment was only conducted in one location, but the effect size is impressive and it seems to indicate that individuals do not want to be observed cheating the system.
International trade in wildlife is estimated to be worth billions of dollars each year and involves hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. Although some of these are traded legally, a substantial proportion involves the lucrative trade of products from endangered species. Examples of these include caviar from Caspian Sea sturgeon ingredients such as rhinoceros horns for traditional medicine pets, including exotic birds and tropical fish rainforest hardwood trees and other timber furs and skins for items such as coats and crocodile skin bags and tourist souvenirs such as jewelry made from coral. In an attempt to reduce the deleterious impact of illegal trade on endangered species, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) came into force in 1975. Over 160 countries are now signatories to CITES and around 5000 animal species and 28 000 plant species are protected by CITES against overexploitation through international trade...
Financial And Wealth Affirmations
The big book of affirmations from financial and business juggernauts. Many individuals are looking to bring in more revenue, boost their wealth, become debt-free, and financially free.