Contents

page

Introduction 9

Department of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Oxford

Classification of organisms 30

W. S. McKerrow

Precambrian 49

W. S. McKerrow

Cambrian 52

Department of Palaeontology, British Museum (Natural History) and W. S. McKerrow

1 Cruziana-Lingulella Community

2 Shallow Water Community

3 Deeper Shelf Community

4 Olenid Community

Ordovician 62

5 Orthambonites-crinoid Community

6 Asaphid Community

7 Triarthrus Community

8 Carbonate Community

9 Graptolite Assemblage

10 Dinorthis flabellulum Community

11 Sowerbyella-Dalmanella Community

12 Diverse brachiopod Community

13 Trilobite-Onnella Community

14 Restricted Hirnantia Community

15 Diverse Hirnantia Community

16 Christiania-Sampo Community

17 Tretaspis Community

Silurian 93

18 Lingula Community

19 Cryptothyrella Community

20 Eocoelia Community

21 Salopina Community

22 Pentamerus Community

23 Sphaerirhynchia Community

24 Reef Assemblage

25 Stricklandia Community

26 Isorthis clivosa Community 2 7 Clorinda Community

28 Dicoelosia Community

29 Visbyella trewerna Community

30 Silurian graptolite Assemblage

Devonian 125

R. Goldring Ph.D.

Department of Geology, Reading University

31 Lower Devonian Freshwater Communities

32 Lower Devonian Swamp Community

33 Middle Devonian Lacustrine Community

34 Middle Devonian Muddy Shelf Community

35 Middle Devonian Off-reef Community

36 Upper Devonian Coastal Deltaic Community

37 Upper Devonian Clastic Shelf Community

38 Late Devonian Basinal Environment

Carboniferous 146

Institute of Geological Sciences, Leeds

39 Tidal-flat Community A

40 Tidal-flat Community B

41 Modiolus Community

42 Composita Community

43 Oolitic Limestone Community

44 Algal Reef Community

45 Upper Reef Slope Community

46 Lower Reef Slope Mollusc Community

47 Lower Reef Slope Brachiopod Community

48 Productus-Buxtonia Community

49 Coral-calcarenite Community

50 Brachiopod Calcarenite Community

51 Mud Community

52 Namurian Goniatite Community

53 Namurian Basinal Benthic Community

54 Westphalian Non-marine Bivalve Community

55 Sea Level Lake Community

56 Westphalian Forest

Permian 184

57 Barrier Reef Top Community

58 Back-reef Community

59 Hypersaline Landlocked Basin Community

60 Hypersaline Sea Community

Triassic 194

Department of Geology, Reading University

61 Triassic Lagoon Scene

62 Late Triassic Tidal-flats

Jurassic 204

B. W. Sellwood

63 Bituminous Mud Community

64 Restricted Clay Community

65 Silty Clay Community

66 Muddy Sand Community

67 Sand Community

68 Condensed Limestone Community

69 Ironstone Community

70 Calcarenite Community

71 Hardground Community

72 Carbonate Mud Community

73 Freshwater Communities

74 Restricted Marine Clay Community

75 Communities in Ironstones and Marine Sands

76 Oolitic Limestone Communities

77 Low Diversity Temporarily Stable Calcarenite Community

78 Diverse Calcarenite Community

79 Shelly Lime Mud Community

80 Muddy Lime Sand Community

81 Clear Water, Firm Substrate Communities

82 Lime Mud Coral Community

83 Muddy Sea Floor Communities

84 Marine Sand and Muddy Sand Communities

85 Calcarenite Community

86 Oyster-algal Bioherms Community

87 Coral-algal Patch-reef Community Oyster Lumachelle Community

88 & 89 Intertidal and Subtidal Algal Mat Communities 90 Freshwater Lagoon Communities

Cretaceous 280

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