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Chondrichthycs (Sharks) 46, 299, 319, 333, 338

300-2, 312 Chondrostei 46 Chonetes 37, 136, 141

Chonetoidea (Chonetoids) see also Chonetes, Protoehonetes, Rugosochonetes 84, 148— 9,156,174 Chordata 28, 45 Christaia 89 Cidarid echinoids 242 Cidaris 2 69 Cimomia 3 32

Cirripedia (Barnacles) see also Balanus 44,

337, 363 CirtonieBa 2 87 Cladochonus 159 CladophyUia 2 69 Cleiothyridina 187 Cliona 34, 311, 317, 362 Clionid sponges 270 Clisiophylloid corals 148 Clorinda 98-9, 113, 117-8 Club mosses 33 Clydoniceras 2 45 Clymeniid ammonoids 143 Clypeus 2 38 Coals 148, 181

Coccolithophorida (Coccoliths) 24, 31, 2289, 256-9, 278, 306 Cocmnühyris 3 12-4

Cockles see also Cardium, Laevicardium,

Parvteardium 13, 348, 354 Cockroaches 276 Cod 347 Codakia 3 6 0

Coelenterata see also Corals, Hydrozoa

19, 34, 50 Coelocanthid fish 181 Coelostyüna 191-2

Coleoidea see also Belemnites 40, 338 Community — definition 10—12, 99 Composüa 149, 155, 168, 170 Concmnithyris 311 Conifers 33, 196 Conocardiacea 42, 161 Conocardium 161

Conodontophora (Conodonts) 28, 45 65,

128, 143-5, 157, 174 Conotreta 71 Conulariida 35 Conulus 3 0 8, 31 1, 318 Conus 323, 340, 360, 363 Coolmia 116 Copepoda 43

Corals see also Rugosa, Scleractinia, Tabulata

20, 23- 4, 35, 51, 63, 108- 1 12, 1 37-8, 146, 148, 157, 1 6 0 - 1, 20 1, 234, 242, 247, 257, 263, 278, 306, 322-3, 336-7, 347-8, 361-3

Corbicula 331, 342, 344, 351 Corbula 329, 338, 341, 353 Cordaites 33 CornulMes 101 Cornulitids 42, 101 Corophium 13 9, 355 Costigervillia 24 7 Costistrteklandia 98, 113 Crabs 44, 359 Crangopsis 181 Crania 37

Crassatella 3 3 8- 40 Cravenceratoides 176 Cretaceous 18, 24, 280 Crctirhynchia 319-21

Cricoconarida see also Tentaculies 42, 101, 145

Crinozoa (Crinoids) 22-3, 44, 86, 89, 93, 104-6, 1 1 1-3, 1 36-8, 141, 149, 157,163 172, 176, 187, 2 12-5, 223, 232, 285

Crocodiles 47, 194, 276 Crossopterygians 23, 46, 113-4 Crurithyris 172

Crustacea (Crustaceans) see also Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Cirripedia, Malacostraca 24, 4 3-4, 197,2GS,2 11,263 Cruziana 4 3, S3 Cryptodonta 4G, 14S Cryptograptus 7 7 Cryptothyrela 9 8, 1G 2 Ctenopyge 61 Cfenostreon 262 CucuUaea 3G3, 31 1 Culiellus 3 S 3 Cummmgella 161 Curvirimula 1 7 7 Cuttlefish 4G, 338 Cyathaxonia 1S9, 172 Cybeloides 91 Cycads 33, 277 Cycloidea 43, 167 Cyclostomes 46 Cyclothyris 3G8 Cyclus 167

Cymatoceras 2 91, 3 11-2 Cypraea 326, 36G Cypridea 2 88 Cyprina 3 G 3 Cyrtia 117-9 Cyrtograptus 1 2 G - 3 Cyrtospirifer 141 Cystoids 44, 64

Dactylioceras 210-2, 217, 220 Dalejina 115,118 DalmaneUa 81, 87 Oalmanellid brachiopods 102 Dalmanites 111, 120 Dalmanitina 87 Darwinulid ostracodes 28 7 Dascylus 3 6 3 DaviesieUa 170, 183

Decapods see also Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimps

Deltas 139, 181-2, 233-4, 350 Demospongea see also CUona 34, 158- 9,

264, 303, 305, 320 Dendroidea (Dendroid graptolites) see also

Dtetyonema 45, 62, 71, 76, 121 Dentalum 218, 338, 353 Desh^csites 2 9 2-4 Devonian 18, 21, 125 Diademid echinoids 229 Diaphyodus 331 Diatomacea 31 DibunophyUum 1 70 Dicoelosia 98-9, 116, 118-9 Dteroloma 2 6 0 Dicrorygma 2 87 Dtetyonema 59, 62, 65 Dtetyothyris 251 Dielasma 148, 161, 188-9 Dimorphoceras 176 Dimorphoplties 299 Dinoflagellata 31 Dinorthis 79, 89

276-9, 286-8, 323 Diplacanthus 13 4

Diplocraterion 138,217-9,222-4 229 240-1

Diplograptid graptolites 121 Diremattehthys 3 32 Discoides 311, 315 Dürupa 3 3 3-6 Dolabra 140 Doryderma 305

Dosinia 35 3 Dosiniopsis 329

Dragonfly 180, 235, 276 DunbareUa 175

Echinocardium 13, 353, 357 Echinocaris 1 39 Echinoconchus 160, 164, 167 Echinocorys 318, 321 Echinocyamus 3 56

Echinodermata (Echinoderms) see also Crinozoa, Asterozoa, Echinozoa 28, 44, 234,306

Echinoidea (Echinoids, Sea urchins) 24—5, 44, 157, 223, 226, 238-42, 245-7, 262, 270, 285, 301, 308- 1 1, 3 1 4-2 1, 323, 346, 353,357,363 Echinometra 3 6 3

Echinozoa see also Echinoidea, Holothur-

oidea 44, 360 Ecogroup 99 Ecological controls 14 Ecology — definition 10 Ectoprocta see also Bryozoa 37 Ediacaria 35 Ediacara fauna 36, 50 Edmondia 163, 172 Edrioasteroidea 4 4 Egrets 362 Elonichthys 179 Emarginula 3 46 Emmonsia 159 Endoceratoidea 39, 74 Enoploclytia 320 Enteropneusta 45 Entolium 229, 245, 254, 297, 301 Entomoconchus 159 Eocallista 2 4 3

Eocene 18, 325, 326, 330-40 Eocoeäa 97-8, 104, 109, 113 Eoderoceras 215-7 Eomarginifera 170 Eonavicula 2 5 4 Eoplectodonta 117-9 Eospirfer 110, 113, 116-8 Eostropheodonta 8 6- 7, 1 02-4 Epancyloceras 2 9 4 Epicyprina 30 3 Epifauna — definition 11 Epihoplites 299 Epithyris 2 4 7-9

Equisetales (horse tails) see also Equisetites

33, 196, 287 Equisetites 235, 277, 286-8 Equisetum 285 Eriphyla 30 3 Euhoplites 299 Eukaryota 30-1 Euloma 59 Eunicid worms 363 Euomphatopterus 113

Euproops 179 Euryapsida 47, 229 Eurypterids 43, 129-30 Euturillites 308 Exanthesis 312

Exogyra 250, 260- 1, 270- 1, 301, 305, 308 Extinction 20, 23-5, 194, 323 Euspira 329, 332, 338

Favosites 111 Favreina 248, 255

Fibula 2 47

Ficus 335

Filosina 2 88

Finckelnburgia 74

Fish see also Agnatha, Chondrichthyes,

Osteichthyes 23, 46, 51, 64, 128-30, 135, 174, 196, 208, 276, 288, 318, 3315, 337, 353-7, 360-3 Fistutipora 159, 163, 167 Fisus 3 32 Flounder 355

Foraminiferida (Foraminifera) 23—5, 32, 149, 1 56-7, 184, 187, 190, 193,227, 252, 256, 306, 322, 326 Freshwater environments see also Lakes 128-35, 1 77-8 1, 196-200, 234-5, 276- 7, 285-9, 341-4, 350-1 Fucus 3 5 9 Fungi 31, 181 FuseUa 162

Fusulinid foraminifera 23, 184, 193 Fusus 303

Gadus 347-9, 357 Gafrarium 3 60 Galba 3 4 4 Galeocerda 3 41 Galeodca 332 Galerites 321 Gari 35 7

Gastrochaena 3 62

Gastropoda (Gastropods) see also Archaeo-gastropoda, Mesogastropoda, Neogastro-poda, Pulmonata 25, 39, 51, 63, 73, 99, 148 -9, 157, 172, 189, 194, 205 Geisina 177

CervmUa 224, 240, 249, 262, 291 -2 GerviMa 201, 210-2, 216 Gibbühyris 319 Gibbula 3 59

Gigantoproductus 170—2 Gingkos 33

Girvanella 57, 161, 272 Glassia 117-9 Globigerina 32 Globorotalia 25 Globoiruncata 2 4 Globularia 3 42 Glomerula 2 6 1-3 Glossopteris 2 3, 33 Glycera 3 57

Glycymeris 303, 338, 341, 346, 349, 357

Glyphaea 24 4-7, 255

Glyphocyphus 314

Gondwanaland 67

Goniomya 2 62

Goniatites (goniatitic ammonoids) 22, 40,

146-9, 162-3, 173-5 Goniatites 163 Goniograptas 11 Goniopholis 2 77 Gonwrhynchia 2 52 Gorgonian 247, 347 Graphularia 3 3 6

Graptolithina see abo Dendroidea, Grapto-

loidea 20, 28, 45, 51 Graptoloidea (Graptolites) 20, 28, 45, 65,

257, 260 Gulls 358

Gymospermae see also Conifers 33, 277 Gyrodes 3 0 3

Hagfish 46 HaMrhoa 30S Hallopora 79, 109- 1 1 Hafysües 10 9-11 HamlingeUa 142 Hamites 299

Hard substrates226-8, 2S0-2, 296, 310,

Heart urchins see also Echinoidea 13

Helicoplacoidea 44

HeUoUtes 111, 136

Hemichordata 28, 45

Hemicidaris 2 71

Hetnipleurotoma 3 38

Hepaticites 2 87

Hercoglossa 32 0

Hermatypic corals 36, 322, 362

Hesperithyris 2 32

Heterocentrotus 3 6 3

Heteroclinus 2 97

Heterocorallia (Heterocorals) 36, 157, 160-1 Heterodonta see also Veneroida, Myoida, Rudists 41

Heteromorphs 280, 294, 308, 310, 316, 320

Hexactinellid sponges 34, 51, 315, 320

Hexaphyllia 160

Hexapoda see also Insects 44

HiateUa 359

Hildoceras 220

Hinia 3 46

Hippopodium 217, 223 Hippoporidra 34 7 Hippuritoida see also Rudists 41 Hirnania 8 4-8 Hoernesia 201 Holaster 308, 311, 317 Holocenrus 3 3 6, 363 Holocystis 291

Holostei (Holosteans) 46, 289 Holothuria 3 60

Holothuroidea (Holothurians) 44, 172, 360

Homalopteon 11

Homalozoa 44

Homocospira 9 8, 107

Homomya 2 49

Hopates 2 97

Hoploparia 2 9 2- 4, 336

Horneophyton 131

Horridonia 18 7-8, 193

Horse-tails 33, 196, 285-7

HoweUeUa 110

Hudsonoceras 175

Hyalospongea see also Hexactinellid sponges

34, 312, 318-20 Hydrobia 355 Hydrozoa 35, 201, 278 HyoHtheUus 57 Hyolithes 5 7-9 Hyolithids 20, 42, 51, 5 7-9 Hypermecaspis 72—3 Hyphantoceras 317 Hyphopütes 3 08 HypoturriUtes 308 Hypsilophodon 2 86 Hysteroceras 2 99, 303 Hystricurus 74

Iapetus Ocean 52-5, 65- 6, 9 3-5 Ichthyosaurs 24, 47, 194, 210, 216, 228,

297,323 Iguanodon 2 7 6- 7, 286-8 Inarticulata (Inarticulate brachiopods) 37, 51, 53-9, 71, 79, 101, 123, 140, 197-9

Infauna - definition 11

Inoceramids 280, 306, 323

312, 316-21 Insects 21, 44, 125, 133, 181, 235, 276, 287

Isastrea 225, 237, 254, 269 Isocrinus 217 Isocyprina 2 72

Isognomon 249, 264, 267, 291

Isopods 44

Isorthis 98, 115, 118

Jellyfish 35 Jurassic 18, 24, 204

Kallirhynchia 2 37 Kayseria 136 King-crab 43 Kinnella 8 7 Kjaerina 81

Koninckophyllum 148, 156, 168 Koninchopora 161, 168 Krotovia 16 4

Labyrinthodonts 200 Laevicardium 35 7 Laevidentalium 3 32

Lakes and lagoons 128- 135, 1 77- 1 81, 190, 197-201, 235-6, 258, 272- 8, 287- 9, 325, 343-5, 350-1 Lambh 32 6 Lampreys 46

276- 8, 285-6 Leangella 113, 119 Leiopteria 16 5-7 Lepidocaris 132 Lepidodendron 33, 180

Lepidosauria see also Rhynchosaurs, Snakes 46

Lepidotes 2 8 8 Leptaena 83, 87, 111-5 Leptagonia 159 Leptostrophia 110, 115 Lewesceras 314, 317 Lewisella 220 Licharewia 193 ii'efrea 192

Lime mud see Carbonate mud Limpets 13, 194, 226, 359 Limulids 43, 178 Limulus 43

Lingula 37, 98- 1 0 1, 140, 197-9 Lingulella 53, 57, 71 Linoprotonia 148, 155, 160, 168 Linotrigonia 2 97 Liospira 102

Liostrea 21 0-2, 2 15-7, 220, 223-6, 2379, 247- 51, 257, 262, 267, 271 Lithistid sponges see also Demospongea 34, 158-9

311,363 Lithostrotion 158, 168-70 Lithostrotionetta 183

Lithostrotionid corals 148 Lithotrya 36 3 Littorina 13, 348, 355, 359 Liverworts 32, 181, 287 Lizards 47

Llandovery benthic communities 92

Lobsters 44, 292-4, 336

Lonchodomas 85, 91

Lonsdaleia 148, 170

Lopha 245, 252, 269, 308

Lophophore 36, 37

Lophospira 81

Lotagnostus 61

Loxonema 102, 110, 113

Lucinoids 234, 260

Lucinoma 3 46

Lumbriconereis 35 7

Lungfish 46, 135, 196

Maclurües 7 4 Macoma 349, 355 Macrocnemus 199

Macrosolen 3 38 Mactromya 211

Malacostraca see also Crustacea, Decapods

44, 139, 336, 353-9, 363! Mammalia (Mammals) 24- 5, 47, 194, 276,

279, 287, 323 Mammal-like reptiles 47 Mammites 314 MangeHa. 3 52 Mantefflana 2 88 Mantellceras 3 08 Martesia 317 Martinia 16 4, 167 Mastodonsaurus 199 Medusoids 34 Megachonetes 14 8, 156

Megalodont bivalves see also Pachymegalo-

don 201 Megalosaurus 2 86 Melanopsis 2 8 7, 331 Meleagrinetta 2 45 Merlinia 69

Merostomata 43, 129- 1 30, 178-9 MesaUa 3 38

Mesogastropoda 39, 102, 110-3, 192, 212, 22 1-2, 235- 7, 24 1- 3, 249, 260, 267, 288, 292, 299, 303, 329-35, 338-44, 351-5, 359-63 MesophoUdostrophia 115—6, 119 Mesophyüum 136 MesopUca 141 Mesosaurs 46 Mesounia 120 Mesozoic Era 18 Meyeria 2 92 Michelinia 159 Michelnoceras 121 Micrabacia 312 Micraster 318 Micromitra 57 Microsolena 238 Microsphaeridiorhynchus 105—6

Microspongia 158 Millipedes 44 Milleporina 35 Miocene 18, 326, 344 Mites 125, 133 Mithracites 2 92 Mitraster 318

Modiolopsis 79 .

Modiomorphoida see also Actinodont bivalves 41, 79 Mollusca see also Monoplacophora,

Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Bivalvia, Rostroconchia) 29, 38, 51, 62, 93,1 12,234 Monocrtäerion 219 Monograptus 21, 12 3 Monograptid graptolites 121—3 Monoplacophora 38, 59, 79, 83, 89, 161 MontävaÜia 22 6 Mortoniceras 2 9 9, 301 Mosses 32, 181 Mourlonia 188 MuUetia 2 91

Mussels see also Mytiltis, Modiolus 13, 41, 153

Mya 346, 355 Myalina 167

336-4 1, 346, 353-5, 359, 363 Myophoreüa 2 31, 2 6 3 Myophoria 2 01 Myriapoda 21, 44, 125 Mytiloida 41, 153, 167, 173, 21 5-8, 225- 6, 237, 247, 251, 254, 260, 267, 311, 317, 349, 359, 363 Mytiloides 314 Mytiu 13, 349, 359

Naiadües 177

Nannosuchus 2 76

Nanonavis 2 97

Nassau 349

Natica 262, 341, 346, 352

Naticopsis 18 9-91

Nautiloidca (Nautiloids) 39, 63, 72-5, 83, 111, 120, 137, 165, 168-73, 176, 189, 245, 31 1-3, 333 Neithea 301, 305, 308 Nekton — definition 1 1 Nematode worms 364 Nemocardium 287, 338

Neogastropoda 39, 323, 329, 332-5, 33844, 349-5 1, 359- 60 Neogene 326, 344 Neohibolites 2 97 Nephrops 35 3 Neptunea 349 Nephthys 3 5 3 Nereid worms 140, 363 Nereis 140 Nerinea 32 3

Nerineid gastropods see also Aphanoptyxis,

AptyxieUa 24 3, 2 57 Neseuretus 69 Niche 13

Nielsenicrinus 2 99

Non-marine bivalves 177, 235, 344, 351 North Sea 278, 284, 325, 344 Norway pout 353 Nothosaurs 47, 199, 200, 204 Nucella 348, 359 Nuckoltes 244-5, 262, 270 Nucleospira 119 Nucula 272, 317, 332, 341, 353 Nuculana 212, 234, 299, 316, 332 Nuculoids see also Protobranch 40, 69, 80, 101, 105-6, 148, 212, 234, 272, 297-9, 3 16-7, 332- 5, 341, 349, 353

Octocorallia 35, 247, 336, 347 Octopus 40 Odontaspis 3 32 Odontopleurids 62 Ogygiocaris 7 1

Old Red Sandstone 21, 125, 127 Olenid trilobites 60 Oligocene 18, 326 OUgostegina 3 06

Oncolites (Oncoliths) 30, 161, 220- 1, 242

Onnia 85

Onnicalymene 85

Onniella 8 3-5

Onychiopsis 288

Ophiocoma 36 3

Ophiomorpha 2 87

Ophiuroids 44, 352, 362-3

Opisoma 232

Opisthobranchia 39

Oppeüsmilia 224, 225

Orbicuoidea 123

Orbirhynchia 3 12-4

Ordovician 18, 20, 62

Ornithclla 2 4 5, 254

Ornithellid brachiopods 251

Orthambonites 69

Orthida (Orthides) 23, 37, 57, 62, 69, 75. 79- 83,89- 9 1, 102-6, 1 15-20, 160, 166-7,194 Orthoceratids (Orthocones) 83, 111, 120,

165, 168-73, 176 Orthochetus 33 4

Osteichthyes sec also Fish, Acanthodii, Crossopterygians, Actinopterygians 46, 139, 179, 196, 288, 33 1-2, 344, 349, 353-7, 360-3 Osteolepis 13 4

Ostracoda (Ostracodes) 43, 68, 82, 93. 128, 143-4, 148, 153, 157-9, 172, 177, 18790, 207, 228, 233-6, 276, 285- 89 Ostracoderms 46, 128-30 Ostrea see also Oysters 287, 320, 331, 334,

336, 342 Otoliths 46, 337 Overtonia 164 Oxoplecia 81

Oxytoma 21 0-2, 217, 220, 230, 251 Oyster-catchers 356—8

Oysters see also Exogyra, Liostrea, Lopha Ostrea 24, 41, 194, 206, 21 0- 1 8, 222, 225-6, 229, 237-51, 260, 267, 291, 294, 301, 308- 15, 320-1

Pachastrella 25 9, 265 Pachymegalodon 232 Pachymytilus 2 32 Pachypteria 159 Paladin 168, 176 Palaeaster 141

Palaeocene 1 7-8, 325, 326, 328-9 Palaeocharinoides 132 Palaeogene 326—44 Palaeoglossa 79

Palaeoheterodonta see also Rodiomorphoida,

Unionida, Trigonioida 41 Palaeoneilo 101, 10 4-6 Palaeosmilia 148, 156

Palaeotaxodonta see also Nuculoids 40, 153,

192, 349 Palaeozoic Era 18 Paludina 287 Pangea 22, 185, 195, 204 Panopea 292, 294, 303, 329, 336, 347 Paradoxides 57

Parallelodon 161-5, 188,243 Paramammals 47, 194 Parapuzosia 318 Parasmilia 317—9 Parvicardium 3 5 3, 357 Patella 13, 3 59 Patellid gastropods 226 Pectnaria 3 5 3

Pectmid bivalves 41, 148, 172-4, 2 12-7, 222, 226, 229, 239-4 1, 245-5 1, 254, 260, 264, 269, 297-30 1, 308- 1 3 Pelagic — definition 11 Pelecypodichnus 177 Pelt urn 61 Pelycosaurs 47 Pennatulacea 35 Penniretepora 161, 172 Pentacrinus 210, 220, 225-6 Pentamerida 38, 62, 98, 1 07-9. 113, 117 Pentameroides 9 8, 107 Pentamerus 98, 10 7-9 Peripetoceras 189 Permian 18, 22-3, 184 Permophorus 18 9-92 Phacoides 3 49 Phacopid trilobites 62 Phacops 136, 141 Phascolosoma 36 3 Phasianella 30 3 Phestia 192

Phillibolid trilobites 148, 172 Pkillipsinella 87 Phillipsiid trilobites 148 Pholadomya 197-99, 215- 17, 222, 225,

.245, 249. 262, 265 PHoladomyoids 240 Pholas 227 Pholidostrophia 113 Phricodothyris 16 4 Piloceras 74

Pinna 172, 21 5-8, 224, 260-2, 334-6, 360 Pilar 334, 336, 360 Pisidium 3 51

Placodermi 46 Plaeocteniza 133 Plagiostoma 22 9, 254-5 Plankton - definition 11 Planolites 181, 296, 300-2, 312 Planorbina 3 4 4 Planorbis 2 76

Plant Kingdom see ako Algae, Angiospermae, Bryophyta, Gymnospermae, Land plants, Pteridophyta 32 Plant microfossils see also Pollen, Spores 285 Plateosaurus 199 Platyceras 163 Platylichas 83 Platypeltoides 59 Platystrophia 83

Pleistocene 26, 326, 344-5, 348-351 Plectonotus 79 t

Plectothyrella 87

Plesiosaurs 47, 204, 216, 228, 323

Pleuromya 215, 223-4, 245, 249, 272

Pleuronectes 355

Pteuropugnoides 161

Pleurorthis 69

Pleurotoma 335

Pleurotomaria 220, 223-5, 254, 267, 310, 323

Plfcatffera 162, 164

P&atula 220, 267, 297

Pliocene 17-8, 326, 244-7

Pliosaurs 47, 204, 208, 229, 323

Pole Dab 353

Poleumüa 10 4

Polidevcia 152

Pollen 276

PolMa 3 40

Polychaetes see ako Serpulids 36, 301, 323,

342, 364 Polyplacophora 38 Polypora 163 Poraacanthus 3 6 3

Porifera (Sponges) see also Desmospongea, Hyalospongea, Calcispongea, Stromato-poroids 28, 34, 51, 157, 256, 259, 265, 303-5, 3 15-20, 347, 362 Pories 3 6 0 Portunus 3 57 Posidonia 175—6 Posidoniella 162 Potamides 3 42 Praenucula 69 | Precambrian 18-9, 35, 49 Present day communities 12, 352 Preservation of fossils 26 Pristiograptus 122 Procerihium 212, 216, 222, 272 Productella 141 Productina 160

Productoidea (Productoids) 21-2, 141-2,

148-9, 155-74, 183, 187-8, 194 Productus 37, 167, 172, 176 Prokaryota (Prokaryotes) 19, 30 Prosobranchia see also Archaeogastropoda,

Mesogastropoda, Neogastropoda 39 Protista Kingdom 28, 31

Protobranch see also Nuculoids 40, 135, 211 Protocardia 243, 271-2, 291, 303 Protocarus 132

Protochonetes 106, 110, 115, 119-20 Protomedusae 34

Protozoa see also Foraminiferida, Radiolaria 32

Pseudodiadematid echinoids 225 Pseudolimea 246, 2 52 Pseudomelania 2 62 Pseudomonotä 187 Pseudopecten 2 2 2-3, 226 Pseudoschwagerina 193

Pseudotrapezium 2 49 Pseudunio 2 88

Psilophytes 21, 33, 125, 1 31-2

Pieraspis 129 Pieria 3 32

Pteridophyta (Pteridophytes) see also

Psilophytes, Lycopods, Calamites, Ferns 33, 285 Pteridosperms 33 Pierinopecien 141

Pterioida see also Oysters, Pectinids 41, 79, 101, 104, 141, 1 59-62, 1 65-7, 17 1-77, 1 88-9 1, 2 10-2, 221, 229, 245- 7, 251, 254, 264, 267-9, 293, 297, 308- 17, 331-7, 342, 346- 9, 360 Pteriomorphia see also Arcoida, Mytiloida,

Pterioida 40 Pterobranchia 45 PieronüeUa 101, 10 4-6 Plerotrigonia 2 9 4, 303 Pterosaurs 47, 194, 204, 287 Pierospirffer 18 7-8 Pierygotus 43 Pierynotus 3 38 Ptychodus 319 Ptyckopteria 141 Pugnax 16 2,165

Pulmonata (Pulmonate gastropods) 39, 235,

276, 287, 344, 351 Purpuroidea 241 Pusiula 170

Pycnodonte 297, 308, 31 1- 4, 318, 321 Pygasier 241, 270 Pygope 2 32

Quasifuslina 193

Quaternary see also Pleistocene 17—8

Radiatospongia 158

Radiolaria 32, 148, 174, 256, 322

Radulopecien 2 5 0

Rapnesquina 89

Ramseyocrinus 69

Rangea 35

Ray 335

Redshank 356

201, 266-71, 362 Remopleurides 85, 91

204, 228, 286 RessereUa 98, 116, 119 Reticuloceras 175 Retiolitid graptolites 121, 123 Rhabdoderma 1 79 Rhabdophyllia 2 69 Rhaxella 2 6 0, 264 Rheic Ocean 66, 88, 95 Rhinocypris 2 87 Rhipidomelte 160

RhUocorallum 219, 222-4, 240, 260-1 Rhizopodea 32 Rhom^^ladm 161 Rfayuchonetta 251

Rhynchonellida (Rhynchonellides) 38, 62, 87, 100-1 0, 113, 14 1-2, 148, 1 54-5, 159-65, 168, 172, 1 88-9, 2 1 8- 9, 22229, 232, 237, 245, 250-4, 291, 294, 308 312-5, 318-21 Rhynchosaurs 46, 194, 199, 200 Rhynia 132 RhynieBa 132 Roach 351 RoceUaria 36 3 Roloboceras 2 92 RosieUteria 3 0 3 Rostroconchia 42, 157, 161 Roiiphyllum 172 Rotularía 3 01

Rudists 24, 41, 280, 322-3 Rugicosiella 158

Rugosa (Rugose corals) 22- 3, 35, 63, 102, 1 90- 1 1, 1 36-8, 149, 1 56-63, 168-73, 194

Rugosochonetes 148, 168 — 72, 176 Rusophycus 4 3, 53

Sabellid worms 36 Sabkha 201, 275

Salinity 17, 147, 1 51-3, 177, 184, 190-3, 197, 200-3, 236, 272-5, 287-9, 34 1-4 Salopina 98, 104-6, 113 Sampo 89 Sanguinolites 149 Sarcodina 32 Scaphites 310, 317

Scaphopoda 38, 157, 218, 299,332,338, 353

Schellwemella 141, 167-8, 170 Schizodus 149, 163-5, 1 91-2 Schizophoria 167 Schizospharella 229 Schloenbachia 3 0 8, 312 Schwagerina 193 Sciponoceras 312

Scleractina (Scleractinian corals) 24, 36, 224-7, 231, 237-8, 243, 554-5, 269, 291, 299, 312, 31 7-9, 338-40, 346, 360-2 Scolecodonts 36 Scrobicularia 355 Scorpions 43, 196 Scyphozoa 35 Sea anemones 35, 359 Sea pens 35 Sea squirts 45

Sea urchins see also Echinoidea 44

Selenopeltis fauna 66

Seäscothon 32 0

Sellilhyris 2 91, 2 9 4

Sepia 3 38

Septfer 317

Serpula 14 8-9, 163

Serpulid worms 36, 2 1 0-2, 2 15-20, 225- 6, 229, 237, 249-5 1, 254, 261, 264, 270, 297, 30 1-2, 318 Shrimps see also Glyphaea 44, 84 Sharks (Chondrichthyes) see also Spiny sharks 46, 333 Shumardia 59 Sigillaria 181 Silicoflagellata 31 Silurian 18, 20, 92 SiphonaUa 32 9 Siphonia 3 0 3-5

Sipunculid worms 36, 323, 362-4

Skenidiodes 91, 117-9

Skolithos 218, 263

Smaragdia 3 6 0

Snakes 46, 194

Solariaxis 3 32

Solenopleura 57

Solenopora 26 7

Sowerbyella 81

Spatangus 3 56

Sphaera 2 91

Sphaerwla 2 4 6

Sphaerirhynchia 9 8, 1 09- 10

Sphenotrochus 3 4 6

Spiders 43, 133

Spiny sharks (acanthodians) 23, 46, 129, 133,181

Spirifer 136, 142, 148, 164, 168 Spiriferellina 160, 187

Spiriferida (Spiriferides) 2 1- 3, 38, 62, 102 107-20, 1 35-7, 141, 148-9, 1 54-5, 159-74, 180, 188, 2 1 4-5 SpMferina 215 Spirorbis 149, 152 Spisula 3 49

Spondylus 297, 311, 318 SpongeUomorpha 301

Sponges (Porifera) see also Demospongea, Hyalospongea, Calcispongea, Stromato-poroids 28, 34, 51, 157, 256, 259, 265, 303-5, 315-20, 347, 362 Spores 128, 276 Squatina 3 38 Squids 40

Starfish see also Asterozoa 44 Stegerhynchus 10 0-105

Stenoscisma 15 9, 188-9 StembergeUa 2 88 Sichopus 3 6 3 Stigmaria 180 Stipulina 158 Somohamäes 311

Stoneworts see also Characeae 32, 287 Straparolus 155, 161 Streblochondria 188 Sreblopteria 163

Streptclasmatid corals 102, 109-11 Sreptolathyrus 3 32, 335 Sreptorhynchus 159

Stricklandia 9 8, 112

187, 203, 220, 242, 273-5 Stromatoporoids 34, 112, 137-8 Strombus 326, 360 Strophalosia 187

Strophomenida (Strophomenides) see also Productoidea, Chonetoidea 20, 23, 37, 62, 80- 3, 87-9, 102-6, 1 10-20, 136, 141, 1 55-73, 176, 188 Strophonella 114 Sturgeon 342 Styliolina 145 StyUophyUopsis 224, 231 Subpriongcyclus 317 Succinea 3 51 Sudeticeras 172 Suteatopinna 167 Synapsida 47 Synocladia 18 7-8 Synodus 3 32

Syringopora 137, 149, 168

Tabulata (Tabulate corals) 23, 35, 63, 111

- 2, 136-8, 1 57-9, 194 TabuUpora 162, 166 Teichichnus 139

Teleostei (Teleosts) see also Osteichthyes 25,

46, 337, 354, 360-3 Tellinacea 323 Temneüa 3 60 Temnechinus 3 46 Tempskya 285 Tentacultes 8 3, 87, 104 Tentaculitids 42 Terebellid worms 36, 223, 247 Terebraula 3 46

Terebratulida (Terebratulides) 21, 38, 161, 188-9, 201, 223, 229, 245-54, 269, 291, 310-15,319, 346 Terebratulina 3 12-4 Teredo 3 3 2

Terrestial environments see also Land plants,

Lakes and Lagoons 131 Tertiary see also Cenozoic 17, 25 Tertosternum 2 76 Tessarolax 2 92

Tethyan realm 256-7, 279, 284, 322 Tethys Ocean 200, 204-5, 23 1-2, 256,

280- 1,326 Tetrarhynchia 218, 226 Thamnasteria 238, 255, 269 Thamniscus 188

Thalassinoides 21 5-8, 225, 229, 240, 2 457, 254-5, 261, 272, 291-6, 300-4, 308, 3 12-4

Thamnopora 137

Thecideidina (Thccideidine brachipods) 38, 250

Thecodonts see also Archosauria 46 Thecosmilia 269 Theodoxus331,342 Theriosynoecum 287—8 Tketrionia 2 92 Thracia 260, 263, 336 Thyasira 3 32 Tibia 335

TigiUites 219, 241

Timoclea 3 57

Titanaria 183

Tornoceras 145

Torquesia 3 0 1-3

Tornquistia 148

Toxoceraoides 2 9 4

Trace fossils see also Boring, Burrows, Chondrites, Diptocrtäerion PlanolMes, Rlii-ocorallium, Skolithos, Thalassinoides

36,43,53, 101, 138-9, 177,217-24, 2 4 0- 1, 260- 4, 287 Tretaspis 8 9, 91 Triarthrus 7 3-4 Triassic 18, 24, 194 Triconodon 2 76 Tridacna 326, 363 Trigonarca 311

249, 264, 293- 4, 297, 303, 311 Trilobita (Trilobites) 20, 23, 5 1- 6 1, 62- 75, 82-9 1,93, 110, 112, 1 1 5-20, 126, 13642, 144, 157, 16 1-5, 168, 172, 176, 194 Trilobite traces see also Cruziana, Rusophycus 4 3, 53 Trilobitoidea 42 Trilobitomorpha 42 Trimerocephaus 14 4-5 Trinucleid trilobites 71, 84 Tritarthiceras 74 Trivia 3 4 6

Trochid gastropods 194, 269, 270, 316

Trochocyathus 2 9 9

Trochus 316

Trophon 3 52

Trypanites 2 5 2

Tunicates 45

Turbellaria 364

TurbinoUa 3 3 8, 340

Turbo 317

Turonia 12 9-130

Turricula 3 32

TurrilMes 310

Turrüella 292, 302, 335, 338-40, 353 Turnstone 356

Turtles 46, 276, 279, 344, 362 Tylocidaris 319 Tylothyris 162 Tympanotonus 3 31

Unionoida 41, 177, 235, 288, 351

Uptonia 225, 22 9

Urochordata 45

Valvata 2 3 5, 351 Varamusium 2 4 0 Vascular plants 32 Vaughonia 2 4 3 Veneracca 323 Venericardia 3 3 8, 340

Veneroida (Veneroids) 41, 191-2, 215-7, 222, 225, 237-49, 260, 288- 93, 303, 317, 329-44, 346-9, 353-7, 360-3 Venerupis 351 VemUcardia 291

Ventriculites 318 Venus 3 46, 3 57

Vertebrata see also Fish, Amphibia,

Reptilia, Birds, Mammalia 46 Visbyella 98, 116, 120-1 Viviparus 235, 276, 288, 344, 351 Volutocorbis 340

Whelks 348, 359 Whidbomella 142

Whifieldella 113 Whiting 357 Wingless insects 125 Winkles see also Littorina 13, 348 Worms see also Annelida 36, 50, 211, 251 323, 362-4

Yaadia 2 92 Yoldia 260, 349

Yunnania 18 9, 192

Zaphrentoid corals see also Koninck ophyllum 148, 170 Zechstein Sea 184-6 ZeUleria 229 Zirphaea 3 59 Zoantharia 35 Zooxanthella 31 Zygospiraella 102

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