It is insructive to consider the European Union as a model for the management of environmental agreements. The EU is a supranational organisation with different institutions for the democratic control of its business, the execution of its policies and the juridicial determination of disputes. It has a Commision which acts a civil service, a Council and Parliament which represent the interest of the citizens of Europe.
How does Europe control environmental disasters and environmental degradation? As a law making body, directives and regulations relating to the environmental issues are passed by the Council and Parliament. The scope of such environmental laws neds no introduction. The framework directives provide controls on every aspect of the environment includung water quality, waste and atmospheric pollution, and further directives provide detailed controls on emmisiions, etc. The range of laws pessed at European level are comprehencive, detailed and compulsory. Each of the fifteen member states have no option but to implement those laws into their national legal systems.
The newly formed European Environment Agency intended to act as a policeman. Its role will indeed be helpful in the enforcement context in that it will provide a forum fore the collation of information regarding implementation as well as developing a sceintific base, but its function is to be that of a database rather than an enforcement agency.
This represents probably one of the best examples of multi-state cooperation and enforcement. It can be also seen as a multi-state union of first world countries with relatively like-minded and sophisticated approaches to the protection of the environment.
New Steps in a Global Environment Systems.
Battelle formed a global environment systems and technology business to serve customers in four rapidly growing markets -environmental restoration, waste managment, environmental systems planning, and basic and applied environmental research.
The new global business integrates Battelle's environmental resources at labs in Columbus, Ohio; Richland and Sequim, Washington; Duxbury, Massachusetts; Frankfurt, Germany; and Geneva, Switzerland. The business potentialy represents annual revenue of $400 million.
"We have consolidated and integrated Battelle's worldwide environmental resources to better serve customers across the full cycle of environmental activities and needs," says William J.Madia, corporate senior vice-president, who has been named to lead Battelle's global environmental business. "We want to add value to our customer by solving their complex environmental problems and assisting them in avoiding future environmental difficulties.
Global markets are telling us that risk-based integrated technical, economic, regulatory, and instutional solutions are very much in demand. And there is clearly a movement toward full-swervice, solution-oriented programs. Bettelle intends to meet these market needs".
XVII. Translate the following text. Time - 25 min.
He's been called this generation's John Muir or Henry David Thoreau. As an uncompromising champion of the environment, David Brower has, in fact, become one of the most Influential people in the modern history of the environmental movement.
It's a stubborn attitude that has gotten him nominated for three Nobel Peace Prizes, and helped transform the Sierra Club from a group concerned mainly with providing weekend hikes to one with considerable clout In Washington. More than anyone else, he has pioneered the concept of citizens writing elected officials, attending public meetings, buying coffee-table picture books to support preservation, and taking edgy stands on green Issues.
Brower's passion for nature began early, before he fought In Italy during World War II with the storied 10th Mountain Division, a special combat unit of the Army trained to flight on skis. That experience, however, solidified his affinity for the mountains, and when he came home he became an activist. Before rock climbing became popular, Brower made 70 first ascents In his beloved Sierra Nevadas. Reverence for the natural world has often led Brower to take controversial positions - some viewed as antihuman. He maintains, for example, that there are simply too many people on the planet, living In the wrong places, crowding out other species and depleting limited resources. As a result, he's also staked out a tough stand against high levels of immigration, saying the flood of people into the Southwest is putting too much pressure on stressed ecosystems. It's led to charges of racism and intolerance. But many people who know Brower refute those allegations. "Those who try to diminish his effectiveness portray him as a radical environmentalist who is anti-people, which isn't true," says Mikhail Davis, who oversees The Brower Fund, which supports grass-roots conservation efforts. "No one who has ever met or known him thinks of Dave that way." Ironically, some of the fiercest attacks on Brower over the years have not come from industry but from other green groups. In recent weeks, Brower has drawn flak from conservation-minded Democrats for supporting Green Party candidate Ralph Nader. Brower says as a conservationist, loyalty is not owed to a party, but to the candidate who will do what Is right for the land, air, and water, and the species inhabiting them.
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