Volume

Contributors ix Introduction xiii What Is Biodiversity? 1 Why Is Biodiversity Important? 31 Threats to Biodiversity 49 Stemming the Tide of the Sixth Global Extinction Event: What We Can Do 73

Abyssal Floor 87 Adaptation 87 Adaptive Radiation 91 Agricultural Ecology 93 Agriculture and Biodiversity Loss: Genetic Engineering and the Second Agricultural Revolution 96 Agriculture and Biodiversity Loss:

Industrial Agriculture 99 Agriculture: Benefits of Biodiversity to 105 Agriculture, Origin of 107 Alien Species 114 Amphibians 118 Angiosperms 126

Annelida—The Segmented Worms 132 Anthropology 135 Archaebacteria 140

Archaeology and Sustainable Development 142

Arthropods, Marine 144 Arthropods, Terrestrial 149 Artiodactyls 157 Atmosphere 160 Atmospheric Cycles 162 Atolls 163

Avian Malaria and the Extinction of Hawaiian Birds 164

Bacteria 167 Barrier Islands 171 Beaches 173

Beauty of Nature, Biophilia and Ethics 174 Benthos 178 Biogeography 178 Birds 181

Birds of Guam and the Brown Tree Snake 188

Black Rhinoceros 190

Bluebuck 191

Bony Fishes 192

Botany 197

Brachiopods 200

Bryophytes 202

Bryozoa 205

Carbon Cycle 207

Carnivora 208

Carolina Parakeet 212

Cetacea (Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises) 216

Chiroptera (Bats) 219

Chondrichthyes (Sharks, Rays, Chimaeras) 220 Chordates (Nonvertebrate) 224 Classification, Biological 226 Climatology 229 Cnidarians (Sea Anemones, Corals, and Jellyfish) 232

Coastal Wetlands 234

Coevolution 235

Coloniality 237

Communities 238

Conservation Biology 243

Conservation, Definition and History 246

Continental Shelf 249

Continental Slope and Rise 250

Convergence and Parallelism 251

Coral Reefs 252

Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction 259 Cultural Survival, Revival, and Preservation 263

Dams 267

Darwin, Charles 269

Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Faunas 273

Deposition 274

Deserts and Semiarid Scrublands 276 Draining of Wetlands 278

Earthquakes 281

Echinoderms 282

Ecological Niches 287

Ecological Status of Modern Humans 291

Ecology 292

Economics 299

Ecosystems 300

Embryology 308 Endangered Species 312 Erosion 315 Estuaries 318

Ethics of Conservation 320 Ethnology 324 Ethnoscience 329 Evolution 335

Evolutionary Biodiversity 342 Evolutionary Genetics 347 Extinction, Direct Causes of 352

Five Kingdoms of Nature 357 Flabellidium Spinosum 361 Food Webs and Food Pyramids 362 Freshwater 365 Fungi 367

Galapagos Islands and Darwin's Finches 373 Geological Time Scale 378 Geology, Geomorphology, and

Geography 382 Giant, Flightless Island Birds 385 Giant Ground Sloth 388 Glaciation 390 Global Climate Change 393 Great Apes 397 Gymnosperms 399

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