Cheilio ramosus See Wrasses

Fig. 4. Characins, Family Characidae, based on lithographs by B. Waterhouse Hawkins, with inserts showing the mouth, much less impressive than that of piranhas, their close relatives. A Astyanaxabramis (Tetragonopterus abramis in Fish, PlateXXIII), based on a specimen from the Parana River, Argentina.

Fig. 4. Characins, Family Characidae, based on lithographs by B. Waterhouse Hawkins, with inserts showing the mouth, much less impressive than that of piranhas, their close relatives. A Astyanaxabramis (Tetragonopterus abramis in Fish, PlateXXIII), based on a specimen from the Parana River, Argentina.

Chiloe Island off southern Chile (about 42°S), north ofthe Chonos Archipelago. Jenyns refers in Fish (pp. v, xiii-xvii) to an "Archipelago of Chiloe", but this is misleading, even though there are a few small islands around Chiloe.

CD visited Chiloe in November 1834, and January-February 1835, and collected the following fish species: Aspidophorus chiloensis (see Poachers); Stromateus maculatus (see Butter-fishes); Iluocoetes fimbriatus (see Eelpouts); Gob-ius ophicephalus (see Gobies); and Gobiesox mar-moratus (see Clingfishes).

Chimaera Mythical animal, composed of parts from other animals, often a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail. Also a group of odd-looking fishes of the Order Chimaer-iformes, similar to sharks in many features, and to teleost fishes in others. The first species of this order to be described in the scientific literature is the 'rabbitfish' Chimaera monstrosa Linnaeus, 1758, whose common and scientific *names jointly illustrate the ontological confusion they generated - notwithstanding that 'rabbitfish' is also used, and more appropriately, for the seagrass-loving Siganidae (Tsuda and Bryan 1973; Stergiou 1988).

CD jotted p. 71 Chimera - Antarctica [. . .] <<caught>> Chile, Van Diemen's Land & Cape of Good Hope, upon reading Lesson (18301), thus referring, if implicitly, to two other chimaeras, Callorhinchus callorhynchus (Linnaeus 1758), and C. capensis (Dumeril, 1865), which jointly have the range given in Lesson, and noted by CD (Notebook C, p. 247). However, CD did not follow up on this.

B Astyanaxscabripinnis (Tetragonopterus scabripinnis, PlateXXIII), from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. C Cheirodon interruptus (Tetragonopterus interruptus, Plate XXIII), from Maldonado, Uruguay. D Astyanaxfasciatus (Tetragonopterus rutilus; Plate XXIII), from the Parana River, Argentina.

He also wrote that: The males of'Plagiosto-mous fishes ('sharks, 'rays) and ofChimaeroid fishes are provided with claspers which serve to retain the female, like the various structures possessed by many of the lower animals. (Descent II, pp. 330-1). And: [i]n that strange 'monster, the Chimaera monstrosa, the male has a hook-shaped bone on the top of the head, directed forwards, with its end rounded and covered with sharp spines; in the female 'this crown is altogether absent,' but what its use may be to the male is utterly unknown.19 (DescentII, p. 338; n. 19 reads: F. Buckland, in Land and Water, July, 1868, p. 377, with a figure. Many other cases could be added of structures peculiar to the male, of which the uses are not known; see Burgess (1967) for details on Buck-land's contributions to Land and Water).

Finally, Helfman etal. (1997, p. 194) inform us that the hook-shaped bone on the top ofthe head is called a 'tentaculum' and functions as "an additional clasper". Thelatterbit is slightly misleading, since even male chimaeras (I think) would not dare attempt to inseminate female Chimaeras by using an organ sticking up from their forehead.

Chrestomathy A compilation and rearrangement of selected literary passages, from one or several authors, often meant to assist readers in acquiring a language.

Darwin's Fishes, which quotes copiously from CD's work, is a chrestomathy devoted to the language he used to express his ideas and, equally, to the language of'ichthyology and of science in the nineteenth century.

Chromis(-ids, idae) See Cichlidae; Damselfishes.

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