Cirripedes edia See Barnacles

Classification The process by which entities -including living organisms - are assigned to groups with 'similar' characteristics, the result of that process also being a 'classification'. Traditionally, the similarities used for classifications were in the eyes, or rather in the mind, of the beholder (Lakoff1987), evolutionary thinking requires another way of *seeing.

Thus, CD warns: how grossly wrong would be the classification, which put close to each other a Marsupial and Placental animal, and two birds with widely different skeletons. Relations, such as in the two latter cases, or as that between the *whale and fishes, are denominated 'analogical,' or are sometimes described as 'relations of adaption.' They are infinitely numerous and often very singular; but are of no use in the classification of the higher groups. (Foundations, pp. 199-200; see also Vertebrate origins).

And: generally, it may be observed in the writings of most *naturalists, that when an organism is described as intermediate between two great groups, its relations are not to particular species of either group, but to both groups, as wholes. A little reflection will show how exceptions (as that of the *Lepidosiren, a fish closely related to particular reptiles) might occur, namely from a few descendents of those species, which at a very early period branched out from a common parent-stockand so formed the two orders or groups, having survived, in nearly their original state, to the present time. (Foundations, p. 212).

I think considerable light can be thrown by the theory of descent on these wonderful embryological facts which are common in a greater or less degree to the whole vegetable kingdom, and in some manner to the animal kingdom: on the fact, for instance, ofthe arteries in the embryonic mammal, bird, reptile and fish, running and branching in the same courses and nearly in the same manner with the arteries in the full-grown fish; on the fact I may add of the high importance to systematic naturalists ofthe characters and resemblances in the embryonic state, in ascertaining the true position in the natural system of mature organic beings. (Foundations, p. 220).

In spite of the last statement, CD later claimed that his theory has little impact on the practice of *taxonomy. Thus, in Origin, he suggested that systematists will be able to pursue their labor as at present (p. 484), and this was (and still is) true for most taxonomists (De Queiroz 1988).

Only one ichthyologist - Giovanni Canestrini (1835-1900) - readily comes to mind as having understood, upon reading Origin, the need for members of his profession to acknowledge variations within and between populations, i.e. to move away from the typological thinking that had so long dominated European philosophy and the emerging natural sciences (Mayr 1982, pp. 45-7; Sinclair and Solemdal 1988). Hence his remark that "allowing *varieties to be incorrectly called species not only makes classification of our fishes difficult but also curtails a priori the investigation of the causes that give rise to many varieties" (Canestrini 1866, cited in Pancaldi 1991,p.83).

Climbing fish AmarvelnotedbyCDinhis Notebook B (p. 205;basedonKirby 1835): Aclimbing fish. p. 122, and again in the *BigSpeciesBook: Certain fish use their pectoral fins [...] even for climbing trees; if fish had become [...] terrestrial animals, how easily ancient transitional uses of the pectoral fins, might have baffled all conjuncture. (p.341).

These notes, which refer to the Climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792), named after testudo, the turtle (not known to climb much), are interesting in that some creationists complain that key links between early fishes and tetrapods are still "missing", even though that story, as shown by Zimmer (1998), has been nailed down.

Clingfishes Small fishes of the Family Gobiesoci-dae, so named because they 'cling' to the substrate by means of a sucking disk derived from their pelvic fins.

The family is represented here by Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns, 1842, a Sucking fish collected at *Chiloe, Chile (Fish in Spirits, no. 1081; Fig. 5A), and the Red clingfish Arcos poeciloph-thalmus (Jenyns, 1842), from a tidal pool at Chatham (San Christobal) Island, *Galapagos (Gobiesox poecilophthalmos in Fish in Spirits, no. 1288, and Fish, pp. 140-1; Fig. 5B).

Grove and Lavenberg (1997, p. 241, based on Briggs 1955) have suggested that Arcos poe-cilophthalmus, which differs markedly from the two other species of Arcos occurring in the Eastern Pacific, colonized the Galapagos from the

Cocos Islands

Cocos Islands

Fig. 5. Clingfishes, Family Gobiesocidae, based on lithographs by B. Waterhouse Hawkins (Fish, Plate XXVII). A Gobiesoxmarmoratus, sampled off Lemuy Island, southern Chile. B Arcospoecilophthalmus (Gobiesoxpoecilophthalmus), from a tidal pool in Chatham (San Christobal) Island, Galapagos. The insert shows a magnified view of its teeth.

Fig. 5. Clingfishes, Family Gobiesocidae, based on lithographs by B. Waterhouse Hawkins (Fish, Plate XXVII). A Gobiesoxmarmoratus, sampled off Lemuy Island, southern Chile. B Arcospoecilophthalmus (Gobiesoxpoecilophthalmus), from a tidal pool in Chatham (San Christobal) Island, Galapagos. The insert shows a magnified view of its teeth.

Atlantic, during a period when the isthmus of *Panama was still open. Clinus crinitus See Blennies. Clupea spp. See Herrings. Cobites(-is) See Loaches.

Cocos Islands These islands, whose official name is 'Cocos (Keeling) Islands', consist of about 27 islands forming two distinct atolls, jointly covering a total area of 14 km2. They are now an Australian territory, although located close to the Indonesian island of Java (12°05'S; 96°55'E). Their flora and *fauna have been much modified by human impact (Armstrong 1992d).

The *Beagle visited the Cocos Islands from April 1 to 12,1836, and this gave CD the opportunity to test his theory of coral reef formation, whose basic outline was thought out well before he had, in the Cocos, his first (and only) opportunity to study a coral reef (Armstrong 1991b; Stoddart 1962; Woodruffe etal. 1990). This theory, which, notwithstanding *Agassiz (1883), turned out to be correct, was thus developed well before CD had all his 'facts', in stark contrast to naive perceptions of how science works.

Here are some of his observations: There is no want of animal food at these Islands, for turtle & fish abound in the *lagoon. (Diary, April 1,1836). Also: I was employed all the day in examining the very interesting yet simple structure & origin of these islands. The water being unusually smooth, I waded in as far as the living mounds of coral on which the swell of the open sea breaks. In some of the gullies & hollows, there were beautiful green & other colored fishes, & the forms & tints of many of the *Zoophites were admirable. It is excusable to grow enthusiastic over the infinite numbers of organic beings with which the sea of the tropics, so prodigal of life, teems; yet I must confess I think those *Naturalists who have described in well known words the submarine grottoes, decked with a thousand beauties, have indulged in rather extravagant language. (Diary, April 4,1836).

Note that it was easy for CD, at this point, to abstain from extravagant language: he already had the key to the simple structure & origin of coral reefs!

A total of 533 fish species are now reported from the Cocos Islands (Allen and Smith-Vaniz 1994), and the specimens sampled by CD in the Cocos Islands were assigned in Jenyns' Fish to the following eleven: Diacope marginata (see Snappers); Upeneus flavolineatus (see Goatfishes); Gerres oyena (see Mojarras); Chaetodon setifer (see Butterflyfishes); Seriola

Cod liver oil bipinnulata (see Rainbow runner); Acanthurus triostegus (see Surgeonfishes); *Mugil sp. (see Mullets); Salarias quadricornis (see Galaxiidae); Scarus chlorodon and Scarus sp. (see Parrotfishes), and Tetrodon implutus (see Puffers).

Referring to agencies working against the growth of corals, CD states that For instance, Mr Liesk informed me, that some years before our visit unusually heavy *rain killed nearly all the fish in the lagoon, and probably the same cause would likewise injure the corals. (Coral Reefs, p. 27; Mr. Liesk is, according to the Diary (April 1-3, 1836), an English resident [... living with Capt. Ross, the master of the islands] in a large barn-like house open at both ends; see also Parrotfishes).

Cod Common name of Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1758), commercially the most important species of its genus and family (Gadidae), all frequently referred to as Gadus or cod in CD's writing (see, for example, Fish in Spirits, nos. 751,877).

Despite its enormous economic importance to nineteenth century England and other countries around the North Atlantic, Gadus morhua, "the Fish that Changed the World" (Kurlansky 1997) rates only scattered mentions in CD's writings.

Thus, he notes that their fecundity is very high: Mr F. Buckland found 6,867,840 *eggs in a cod-fish (Land and Water, 1868, p. 62) (Varia-tionsll, p. 373, n. 48).

In a discussion of the prevalence of 'struggle' in nature, CD mentions that Mr. Couch caught a cod-fish with no eyes, yet in good con-dition2 (Big Species Book, p. 205; n. 2 refers to Couch (1825), p. 72), and concludes from this and other examples that the struggle for existence is periodical & not incessant (Big Species Book,p. 206;seealso Punctuated equilibrium).

CD also mentions change in cod abundance: Codfish were formerly never caught at Cape Hinlopen, but now they are numerous there (Big Species Book, p. 573; based on Kalm [1753]

1/294; Cape Hinlopen is in Delaware, USA, 38°48'N, near the southern limit of the range of cod in the Western Atlantic; Scott and Scott 1988, p. 269; Wise 1958).

Also, Jeffries Wyman informed CD of the existence, off Labrador, of a rather common *monstrosity (Correspondence, Sept. 15, 1860). CD encouraged him: I am very glad to hear that you are collecting facts on the 'Bull-dog' fish (Correspondence, Dec. 3, 1860), but no additional information came, and CD had to use what he had for a short note: Prof. Wyman, of Cambridge, United States, informs me that the common cod-fish presents a [...] *monstrosity, called by the fishermen the 'bulldog cod' (Variations I,p. 93,n. 64).

In Norway, a country where cod matter, this monstrosity is considered to bring good luck. There, bulldog cod are called kongetorsk (king cod), the upper part of the head being seen as looking like a crown. This obviously implies that kongetorsk should be leading the other cod, and one can find written account of this belief (e.g. in a translation from p. 219 of Lilien-skiold 1701): "as the bees have their pathfinders, and the geese have their leaders, so the cod do not lack a leader; they have the Torsche-Kongen, which leads the entire schools toward the country..."

Cod liver oil Cod, i.e. Gadus morhua, have large livers, whose lipids serve as energy storage.

The oil extracted from cod livers has many uses. One of them is to serve as a basis for paints, as was the case in Newfoundland until the advent of plastic-based paints.

The better-known use of cod liver oil, however, is medicinal, as generations of children will attest who were force-fed a spoonful a day of the "vile-tasting liquid" (Kurlansky 1997, p. 154). In Britain, the use of cod liver oil intensified after the publication of Bennett (1841), though it was already in use as "a remedy for rheumatism, then a catchall diagnosis for aches and pains." (Kurlansky 1997).

Collected Papers

In 1860, a daughter of Emma and Charles Darwin, Henrietta, became ill, suffering from severe vomiting attacks and a bout of typhus fever (Correspondence to W. E. Darwin, Jan. 24, 1861; note that typhus and typhoid fever, two different diseases, were not well distinguished in CD's time; Herbert 1980a). As Henrietta's illness had led to a hardening of the abdominal tissues that the doctor believes will only gradually subside (Correspondence to J. D. Hooker, August 7, 1860), her parents had good reasons to worry: the same year, the 42-year old Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, died oftyphoid fever.

CD's friend J. D. Hooker, a botanist, recommended that Henrietta be given cod liver oil, as this had been newly suggested in France for symptoms such as hers. Henrietta's parents went along with this and so did Henrietta, but her stomach did not: she could not keep the stuff down. Hooker suggested it would also work if rubbed on and CD, ever inquiring, asked him for details: You mentioned in a former letter about rubbing in cod-liver oil. Etty cannot take it internally. I asked our Doctor here & he had never heard such a thing (Corre-spondence,F eb. 8,1861).

Hooker answered, and CD was grateful: Many & cordial thanks for your admirable & clear letter about rubbing in oil. We have begun (Correspondence, Feb. 20, 1861). And behold, a few months shortly thereafter, CD noted: Some gain of strength has certainly been coincident with rubbing in the oil, which my wife has steadily continued since February (June 19, 1861); Etty is going on well & continues to absorb Cod-liver oil - we think this best advice of yours of any we have had (Correspondence, July 17,1861); The sea has certainly done Etty great good; but I still pin my faith to your oil, which is never neglected (Correspondence, August 13, 1861); and finally Etty goes on splendidly, & still sucks in the Oil (Correspondence, Sept. 24, 1861). She must have stopped at some time, since she later got married, and went on to edit her mother's correspondence (Litchfield 1915).

A good guess is that the cod-liver oil application had no effect whatsoever on Henrietta's health. However, just to be sure, two Professors at the Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, were consulted on this. One wrote "I am unaware of any specific medicinal effects of cod liver oil which may either provide microbicidal activity against Salmonella typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, or by bolstering the cellular immune mechanisms, which are important in host defence against typhoid fever" (Dr A. W. Chow, pers. comm., January 24,1995). The second opinion was very similar to the first, except that its author added that "[t]he anecdote [. . .] regarding Darwin's treatment of his daughter with cod liver oil is certainly romantic and interesting, but as far as I am aware, this has not been followed in any objective way. I wonder whether the Medical Research Council would be interested in funding such a study?" (Dr N. Rainer, pers. comm., February 2, 1995). This is how Science progresses.

Code Short name for the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999)which contains the rules and recommendations referring to the availability of scientific 'names in the animal kingdom, as used for 'taxonomy. The Code is largely based on rules initially standardized by the Strickland Commission (Strickland etal. 1843), with CD one of the alia.

Collected Papers Short title of The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin, edited by Barrett (1977), and containing all (152) of his short publications. The first edition of Collected Papers, which also includes a few previously unpublished short documents, notably on 'Lumpfish, was issued as two separate volumes; the edition used here consists of'two volumes in one', while retaining the original pagination. Thus, the few references to Collected Papers in this book indicate the

Colours volume number in addition to the pages cited. Also, the original references to the few short papers ofCD's mentioning fish are given in the bibliography ofthis book.

Collection The ensemble ofspecimens, notably of fishes, collected by CD during the voyage of the *Beagle, and that she brought back, or that were earlier sent back to England via other vessels.

These consignments, to J. S. *Henslow, include descriptions of the material sent, e.g. [t]he small cask contains fish; will you open it, to see how the spirit has stood the evaporation of the Tropics [...]. I have sent to you by the Duke of York Packet, commanded by Lieu: Snell to Falmouth. - two large casks containing fossil bones. - asmall cask with fish (Corresp., Oct./Nov., 1832). By the same packet, which takes this, there will come four barrells: the largest will require opening, as it contains skins, Plants &c &c, & cigar box with pill boxes: the two next in size, only Geological specimens need not be opened, without you like to see them, the smallest & flat barrell, contains fish; with a gimlet, you can easily ascertain how full it is of spirits (Correspondence, July 18, 1833); and [t]he Cask is divided into Compartments the upper contains a few skins. - the other a jar of fish, & I am very anxious to hear how the Spirit withstands evaporation (Correspondence, Nov. 12,1833).

What CD feared did in fact happen, as indicated by a letter from Henslow: "I am afraid that I have been rather negligent in not writing sooner to announce the arrival of your last Cargo which came safe to hand excepting a few articles in the Cask of Spirits which are spoiled, owing to the spirit having escaped thro' the bung-hole. [However,] I have popped the various animals that were in the Keg into fresh spirits in jars & placed them in my cellar" (Correspon-dence,Aug. 31,1833). CD learned from this, and his few piece ofadvice to collectors, which may be found in his Journal (pp. 598-601), and, in reprinted form, in Barlow (1967), emphasizes the need for tight containers: jars should be closed with a bung covered by bladder, twice by common tinfold, and by bladder again; let the bladder soak till half putrid. I found this plan quite worth the trouble it cost.

Still, a sizeable number of CD's fishes reached England in acceptable condition, and could be described by *Jenyns. What then happened to these fishes is well documented: I have sent off per Waggon, (Carr Paid) the fish skins & all the bottles carefully packed up, directed to Mr Crouch Phil. Soc Cambridge (Correspondence to Jenyns, May 9,1842,right after the last number of *Fish was published). Unsurprisingly, CD's fishes then went to the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, where they remained until 1917,when the majority of the specimens (see Appendix II) were transferred to the Natural History Museum, London, formerly the British Museum (Natural History). The specimens still in Cambridge are documented in Appendix III.

Other zoological specimens collected by CD (mainly crustaceans) are kept at the *Oxford University Museum.

Colours These play a very important role in the writings of the mature CD, notably with regard to *secondary sexual characteristics, and his theory of *sexual selection.

Thus, for example, he asks: What, then, are we to conclude in regard to the many fishes, both sexes of which are splendidly coloured? Mr. *Wallace30 believes that the species which frequent reefs, where corals and other brightly-coloured organisms abound, are brightly coloured in order to escape detection by their enemies; but according to my recollection they were thus rendered highly conspicuous. In the fresh-waters of the tropics there are no brilliantly-coloured corals or other organisms for the fishes to resemble; yet many species in the Amazons are beautifully coloured, and many of the carnivorous Cyprinidae in India are ornamented (Descent II, p. 343; n. 30 refers to Wallace 1867, who emphasized the camouflaging effect of coral reef fish colours, still an active research area (see Marshall 1998); see also Altruism).

This affinity to colours was noticeable in the young CD as well, who, in a letter to J. S. *Henslow, even mentions these colours in the same context as the labels on his specimens, and behavioural observations, thus stressing their importance: N.B. What I have said about the numbers attached to the fossils, applies to every part of my *collections. - Videlicet. Colors of all the Fish: habits of birds &c & &c. (Correspondence, March 1834; 'videlicet' means 'obviously').

In line with this, CD used standardized colour names to describe specimens, taken from Patrick Syme's second edition of Werner's Nomenclature of Colours (Syme 1821), or, as he explained to Jenyns: colours, when given were compared with Pat. Syme's nomenclature book in hand (Corresp. Oct. 17,1839; see annotation to Syme 1821 to see what this implied). Moreover, CD often put the colours' names from Syme's book in quotation marks, many recoverable even from *Covington's copy of his notes (see Fish in Spirits). Thus, CD's descriptions of the colours of fish - all reproduced here (the descriptions, not the colours) - are still useful today, contrary to the fanciful wordage of many other naturalists ofhis time.

Colymbetes See Water-beetles.

Complexity The state of being intricate, i.e. consisting of a large number of interacting parts or components. Complexity being what it is, this entry is far too long. However, its start, based on CD's comments on p. 27 of the draft of Huxley and Etheridge (1865), is quite appropriate: I think little expansion is wanted in middle paragraph to show how a fish can be morphologically more complex and physiologically less so than the highest mollusc. I do not quite understand. (Correspondence to *Huxley, Dec. 16, 1857).

Most educated lay persons, and many trained biologists as well, believe that CD's theory of *evolution by *natural selection necessarily implies that complexity must increase with time. This is probably so, given co-evolution, i.e. the fact that at least some of the competitors, grazers or predators that evolving plants and animals encounter, have 'opted' for complexity, thus requiring complex countermea-sures (Wright 1999, and see below). Moreover, what may appear to be morphologically 'simple' or 'retrograde' organisms often evolve incredibly complex life cycles, as pointed out by Gould (1996a). However, Gould (1996b), whose FullHouse does not discuss co-evolution, strongly argues that there is no evolutionary trend toward complexity.

CD, like Gould, provides arguments for both sides: The enormous number of animals in the world depends, of their varied structure & complexity.- hence as the forms became complicated, they opened fresh means of adding to their complexity.- but yet there is no <<NECESSARY>> tendency in the simple animals to become complicated although all perhaps will have done so from the new relations caused by the advancing complexity of others. - It may be said, why should there not be at ay time as many species tending to dis-developments (some probably always have done so, as the simplest fish &), my answer is because, if we begin with the simplest forms & suppose them to have changed, then very changes <len> tend to give rise to others. -Why then has there been a retrograde development in Cephalopoda & fish & reptiles.? [. . .] I doubt not if the simplest animals could be destroyed, the more highly organized ones would soon be disorganized to fill their place. [... ]

It is quite clear that a large part of the complexity of structure is adaptation. though perhaps differences between *jaguar & tiger may notbe so. - Considering the Kingdom of nature as it now is, it would not be possible to simplify the organization of the different beings, (all fishes to the state of the *Ammocretus, Crustacea to -? &c) without reducing the number of living beings - but there is the strongest possibility of increase them, hence the degree of development is either stationary or more probably increases." (Notebook E, pp. 422-3; note that here, CD anticipates most of Gould's case in Full House, then goes beyond it as he considers co-evolution).

And: A long course of selection might cause a form to become more simple as well as more complicated; thus the adaptation of a crusta-ceous animal to live attached during its whole life to the body of a fish, might permit with advantage great simplification of structure, and on this view the singular fact ofan embryo being more complex than its parents is at once explained. [...]

I may take this opportunity of remarking that naturalists have observed that in most of the great classes a series exists from very complicated to very simple beings; thus in Fish, what a range there is between the *sand-eel and *shark - in the Articulata, between the common crab and the Daphnia - between the Aphis and butterfly, and between a mite and a spider.27 Now the observation just made, namely, that selection might tend to simplify, as well as to complicate, explains this; for we can see that during the endless geologico-geographical changes, and consequent isolation ofspecies, a station occupied in other districts by less complicated animals might be left unfilled, and be occupied by a degraded form of a higher or more complicated class; and it would by no means follow that, when the two regions became united, the degraded organism would give way to the aboriginally lower organism.

According to our theory, there is obviously no power tending constantly to exalt species, except the mutual struggle between the different individuals and classes; but from the strong and general hereditary tendency we might expect to find some tendency to progressive complication in the successive production of new organic forms. (Foundations, p. 227; n. 27 reads Scarcely possible to distinguish between non-development and retrograde development).

But it may be objected that if all organic beings thus tend to rise in the *scale, how is it that throughout the world a multitude of the lowest forms still exist; and how is it that in each great class some forms are far more highly developed than others? Why have not the more highly developed forms everywhere supplanted and exterminated the lower? *Lamarck, who believed in an innate and inevitable tendency towards perfection in all organic beings, seems to have felt this difficulty so strongly, that he was led to suppose that new and simple forms are continually being produced by *spontaneous generation. Science has not as yet proved the truth ofthis belief, whatever the future may reveal. On our theory the continued existence of lowly organisms offers no difficulty; for *Natural selection, or the *Sur-vival of the Fittest, does not necessarily include progressive development - it only takes advantage ofsuch *variations as arise and are beneficial to each creature under its complex relations oflife.

And it may be asked what advantage, as far as we can see, would it be to an infusorian animalcule - to an intestinal worm - or even to an earthworm, to be highly organized. If it were no advantage, these forms would be left, by Natural selection, unimproved or but little improved, and might remain for indefinite ages in their present lowly condition. And geology tells us that some of the lowest forms, as the infusoria and rhizopods, have remained for an enormous period in nearly their present state. But to suppose that most of the many now existing low forms have not in the least

Concordance advanced since the first dawn of life would be extremely rash; for every naturalist who has dissected some of the beings now ranked as very low in the *scale, must have been struck with their really wondrous and beautiful organization.

Nearly the same remarks are applicable if we look to the different grades of organization within the same great group; for instance, in the vertebrata, to the co-existence of mammals and fish - among mammalia, to the coexistence of man and the ornithorhynchus -amongst fishes, to the co-existence ofthe shark and the *lancelet (Amphioxus), which latter fish in the extreme simplicity of its structure approaches the invertebrate classes. But mammals and fish hardly come into competition with each other; the advancement of the whole class of mammals, or of certain members in this class, to the highest grade would not lead to their taking the place of fishes.

Physiologists believe that the *brain must be bathed by warm blood to be highly active, and this requires aerial respiration; so that warmblooded mammals when inhabiting the water lie under a disadvantage in having to come continually to the surface to breathe. With fishes, members of the shark family would not tend to supplant the lancelet; for the lancelet, as I hear from Fritz Müller, has as sole companion and competitor on the barren sandy shore of South Brazil, an anomalous annelid (Origin VI, pp. 98-9; an account of Johann Friedrich Theodor Müller's (1822-97) life, travails, and exchanges with CD is given in Tort (1996), pp. 3109-12).

Let's pick the idea that marine mammals lie under a disadvantage in having to come continually to the surface to breathe to conclude this discussion. I think this remark misses out on a key advantage that the marine mammals, which have evolved only recently, have over fishes and other water-breathers: the mammals bring along their own oxygen supply wherever they dive, which often includes waters bereft of this life-supporting element. Thus, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is able to forage actively within the Deep Scattering Layer, i.e. the oxygen-poor water layer occurring at depths between about 400 and 1000 m in most oceanic areas, where lanternfishes, squids and other water-breathers remain in suspended animation, following daytime feeding bouts in surface waters (Papastavrou et al. 1988). Here, clearly, the evolution of mammalian complexity has led to quite a large step in the evolutionary arms race.

There have been many attempts to apprehend and quantify complexity (see, for example, Ulanowicz 1986,orSlobotkin 1992). So far, the most convincing attempt is that of Chaisson (2001), whose measure of complexity is energy density, the rate of energy flow through a system per unit mass (t> m, in erg s-1 g-1). This enables, among other things, a comparison of our sun (&m ~ 2) with our brains (&m ~ 150 000) and those of marine mammals, all bathed by warm blood. The ^ m values of organisms have tended to increase in evolutionary time, and those of human society in history as well, both of these trends thus supporting the notion of'progress.

Concepcion City in Chile where CD collected, in early March 1835, a species described as Blennechisfasciatus by Jenyns (Fish, p. 84; Fish in Spirits, no. 1202; see Blennies).

Some may argue that there is more than that to Concepcion.

Concordance Alphabetical index of the nontrivial 'words of a book (excluding 'a,' 'the,' etc.) with a reference to the passage where the words occur.

The passages are usually single lines in small characters, with the keyword in question (IN CAPITAL LETTERS) put at the centre, e.g.

Coral Reefs

243c020 f wide * range work this out- L. Jenyns, about my FISH New Zealand & New Holland fish very similar. -

which is the last line of p. 231 in Weinshank etal. (1990), and where the alphanumeric code indicates the location of this line in Notebook C.

In addition to that for the *Notebooks, concordances exist for CD's * Origin (Barrett etal. 1981), *Expression (Barrett et al. 1986) and *Descent (Barrett et al. 1987). These concordances were used to verify that all of CD's references to 'fish' and closely related terms were included in this volume.

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