Conventions used in the text

Most of the material in Darwin's Fishes is presented as an alphabetical list of entries, each relating to a particular term or 'headword' (printed in bold). [Note that German characters with umlauts, e.g. a, u, are alphabetized as if the 'e' were spelled out, i.e. ae, ue.] The entries are liberally cross-referenced by means of asterisks in front of words that are headwords, and by the use of 'see' and 'see also'. Charles Darwin is referred to as 'CD' throughout.

CD's own words are differentiated from mine by being presented in this font. Underlinings within CD quotes are his own, except in the entry on *electric organs (II). My few underlinings correct small errors such as incorrect dates of references.

The editors of CD's Correspondence, Marginalia, *Notebooks and other material not originally intended for publication did a marvellous job deciphering his handwriting and producing texts suitable for scholarly study. Notably, they provide lists of symbols and fonts allowing the distinction of different layers' in CD's writing (e.g. to distinguish original text from later emendations). In this book only a few symbols have been retained from the Correspondence and Notebooks and also used for the transcription of *Fish in Spirits of Wine. These are:

< >indicating a deletion by CD; <<..>>indicating an insertion by CD; and [ ] indicating editors' (or my) notes within the text.

The superscript numbers indicating foot- or endnotes are largely CD's, with a few provided by the editors of work from which quotes were extracted. The original numbers were changed in only a few cases, to ensure their uniqueness within each alphabetic entry. In the annotations to CD quotes, I use 'n.' to refer to items originally in such notes.

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